NOISE & HEARING CONSERVATION A TRAINING FOR THE METALWORKING INDUSTRIES Updated on June 2015 Table of Contents Introduction
Legal requirements Risk management on workplace noise Common noise sources in metalworking industry Noise and its effects
Noise control measures Audiometric test Hearing protectors Practical Exercise Introduction
Noise is common in metalworking industries Noise is a major occupational health hazard Exposure to excessive noise can cause noise- induced deafness Noise also interfere with communication and
induce stress Occupational Diseases in Singapore Source: Ministry of Manpower Occupational Diseases in Singapore Source: Ministry of Manpower Legal Requirements
Required to manage risks under WSH (risk management) regulations Risk assessment must be conducted for all work activities, including noisy processes WSH (Noise) Regulations include noise monitoring, hearing protectors & training WSH (Medical Examinations) Regulations for annual audiometric test Permissible Exposure Limit for Noise Not more than 85 dB(A) for 8 hours duration Legal Requirements
For every 3 dB(A) reduction, the time exposure is reduced by half Risk Management on Noise Required to manage risks under WSH (Risk Management) regulations Assess the risk Take all reasonably practical steps Eliminate any risks Risk Management on Noise
Step 1: Identification of hazard (Noise Sources) Picture source: http://www.safetyworld.com/images/101.gif Common Noise Sources Power press Waste extraction Fan Electric motor Banging and knocking of metal sheets Picture source: http://www.indiapowerpresses.com Common Noise Sources
Waste extraction fan Picture source: http://www.janchipchase.com Electric motor Picture source: http://www.made-inchina.com Banging and knocking of metal sheets Grinding machine Picture source: http://www.powermasterindia.com Picture source: http://www.uwplatt.edu
Milling machine Picture source: http://www.simplycnc.com Noise and its effect Loss of hearing Increases blood pressure Increases breathing rate Disturbs digestion Can cause an upset stomach or ulcer Picture source: http://health.howstuffworks. com
Sleep difficulties, even after noise stops Intensifies the effects of drugs and alcohol Source: American Speech-Language Hearing Association Noise Thermometer Picture source: http://www.listentoyourbuds.org/images/ thermometer-noflash.gif Noise Induced Hearing Loss Often painless Often unnoticed Gradual, but real Hearing loss accumulates over time Permanent
Preventable Source: http://www.hearing-guide.com/noiseinduced.html What are the Danger Signals? Ask yourself Do you have to shout to be heard at work? Is your hearing dulled after work? Do you constantly hear ringing in your ears? Do you have trouble having a conversation in a crowded place? Does your family & friends complained that you up the TV or radio too loudly? turn Source:
http://www.workershealth.com.au/facts007.html Risk Management on Workplace Noise Step 2: Assess the risk Dependent on severity of risk and likelihood of hazards occurring severity X likelihood = risk level
Risk Level = Low, Moderate or High Risk Management on Workplace Noise Rare (1) Remote (2) Occasional (3) Frequent (4)
Almost Certain (5) Catastrophic (A) Medium Medium High High High
Major (B) Medium Medium Medium High High Moderate (C) Low
Medium Medium Medium High Minor (D) Low Medium Medium
Medium Medium Negligible (E) Low Low Low Medium Medium
Likelihood Severity Risk Management on Workplace Noise Risk Level Low Medium High Risk Acceptability
Recommended Actions Acceptable No additional risk control measures may be needed. Frequent review and monitoring of hazards are required to ensure that the risk level assigned is accurate and does not increase over time. Tolerable A careful evaluation of the hazards should be carried out to ensure that the risk level is reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) within a defined time period. Interim risk control measures, such as administrative controls or PPE, may be implemented while longer term measures are being established.
Management attention is required. Not Acceptable High Risk level must be reduced to at least Medium Risk before work starts. There should not be any interim risk control measures. Risk control measures should not be overly dependent on PPE. If practicable, the hazard should be eliminated before work starts. Management review is required before work starts. Risk Management on Workplace Noise Level
Severity Description Catastrophic Death, fatal diseases or multiple major injuries. Major Serious injuries or life-threatening occupational diseases (includes amputations, major fractures, multiple injuries, occupational cancers, acute poisoning, disabilities and deafness. Moderate
Injury or ill-health requiring medical treatment (includes lacerations, burns, sprains, minor fractures, dermatitis and work-related upper limb disorders) 2 Minor Injury or ill-health requiring first- aid only (includes minor cuts and bruises, irritation, illhealth with temporary discomfort) 1 Negligible
1 Rare Not expected to occur but still possible. 2 Remote Not likely to occur under normal circumstances. 3 Occasional
Possible or known to occur. 4 Frequent Common occurrence. 5 Almost Certain Continual or repeating experience. Risk Management on
Workplace Noise Step 3: Select Measures to Control and Reduce Risk Based on hierarchy of hazards control 1st Remove the hazard (E.g. Replace the noisy machine) 2nd Guard the remaining hazards (E.g. Erect isolation enclosure) Risk Management on
Workplace Noise HIERARCHY OF HAZARDS CONTROL 1st Remove the Hazards Replace the noisy machine with less noise machines High noise Picture source: http://www.made-in-china.com Low noise Picture source: http://www.amer.it 2nd Guard the remaining hazards Erect isolation enclosure Picture source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh
Risk Management on Workplace Noise 3rd Mitigate impact of hazard (E.g. Operator to wear ear plugs or muffs) Picture source: http://www.hometowninvasion.com Picture source: http://www.sharpesafety.com Risk Management on Workplace Noise Risk assessment to be done for all noisy processes
To identify the risk and control measures Establish safe work procedures (SWP) Inform staff of SWP Staff to follow SWP Source: Ministry of Manpower Risk Management on Workplace Noise Noise Control Safe Work Procedures (SWP) Noise control measures
Administrative control Audiometric test Hearing protectors Noise Control Measures Damping Silencers
Machine enclosures Partition walls Noise barriers Personnel cabins Source: CP 99: 2003 Damping Addition of layers of vibration-absorbing material Reduce vibration Picture source: http://www.farmnoise.on.net/fact21.htm
Silencers Devices designed to remove air-borne sound waves Used in pumps, compressors Pumps equipped with silencers Picture source: http://www.noiseandpulsation.co.uk/silencersReactive.html Machines Enclosure
A structure enveloping a noise source Design to protect workers from noisy machines Partition Walls Partition walls Picture source: http://www.acousticsciences.com/lsa/Images_Isa/cubicle3.jpg Noise Barriers Consist of sheets of wood, plastics, aluminum or steel
Reduce noise from reaching the staff/worker Noise barriers Picture source: http://www.soundseal.com/barricade/barricade-index.shtml Personnel Cabins Used when noisy machines cannot be enclosed Enclosure specially design to shield workers from noise
Picture source: http://ies2000atlanta.com/index.2.jpg Administrative Control Job rotation of workers Adding periods of quiet hours to the work day Scheduling noisy work when few people is around Notifying people in advance when noisy work is carried out Posting warning signs of noisy areas Source: National Institute of Occupational Health & Safety & The State of Queensland Department of Employment & Industrial relations
Why Conduct Audiometric Test? For the early detection of hearing loss To make sure the hearing protectors are effective To use the results to improve the hearing conservation programme at workplace To ensure workers are working in a healthy workplace
Hearing Protectors Types Ear-muffs Ear-plugs Banded ear-plugs Picture source: Special types http://cn1.kaboodle.com/ (e.g. communication ear-muffs) Picture source: http://www.healthandsafetysupplies.c o.uk
Picture source: http://www.sharpesafety.c om Picture source: http://www.letargets.com Hearing Protectors Selection Noise reduction rating Wearers comfort Working environment & activity Skin disorder or ear problem Compatible with helmets, spectacles
Proper Usage Period of use Correct fitting Guidance/Training of use & maintenance Care and maintenance Inspection and replacement Supervision of proper usage Source: CP 76: 1999 Hearing Protectors Advantages of common types of hearing protectors
Simple to use Cheap Disposable Mass produced and readily available
Hearing Protectors Disadvantages of common types of hearing protectors Easily damaged Not individually molded to fit the ear May not be comfortable
Hearing Protectors Care and Maintenance Clean hands when handling hearing protectors Reusable ear-plugs to be thoroughly washed or cleaned Ear-muffs cushions to be cleaned following
manufacturers instructions Should not be shared Store in suitable environment Frequent inspection to identify damaged or deformation Hearing Protectors
Fitting Ear-muffs Oval-shaped muffs to be worn so that oval is vertical Hair should be brushed away from ear Muffs should cover the ears fully Muffs fit on the head snugly Picture source: http://www.camlab.co.uk Source: CP 76: 1999 Hearing Protectors
Proper use Ear-plugs Should be the right size for each ear Ears should be pulled outwards and upwards before insertion Soft foam plugs should be rolled firmly into a thin cylinder
Plugs may need repositioning when they become loose Cover ears after insertion to check if plug is Picture source: http://www.ohsonline.com/articles/50683/ properly sealed Hearing Protectors How to wear ear plugs
Picture source: http://www.uwrf.edu/ehs/2earplugsafety.htm Practical Exercise Proper Use of Hearing Protectors 1. Describe how to wear ear-plugs and wear muffs 2. Describe how to care and maintain hearing protectors Summary of Key Points Legal requirements on workplace noise Risk management on workplace noise Common noise sources Noise and its effect on hearing Noise control measures Audiometric test Hearing protectors
Noise Induced Deafness is preventable Be proactive: it is up to US to prevent it Thank You References: 1. MOM Occupational Safety and Health Division Annual Report 2006 2. CP 99: 2003 Code of Practice for Industrial Noise Control
3. Ministry of Manpower Guidelines for Industrial Noise & Vibration Control 1999 Edition 4. Guidelines on Noise Labelling 5. ProBE - Technical Advisory for Metal Industry 6.
WSHAC Technical Advisory for Work in Noisy Environment Hearing Conservation Programme 7. CP 76: 1999 Code of Practice for Selection, Use, Care and Maintenance of Hearing Protectors 8. National Institute of Occupational Health & Safety 9. The State of Queensland Department of Employment & Industrial Relations
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