Chapter 14 Preview Lesson Starter Objectives Acids Bases

Chapter 14 Preview Lesson Starter Objectives Acids Bases

Chapter 14 Preview Lesson Starter Objectives Acids Bases Arrhenius Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Lesson Starter The solutions in the beakers are different because they have a different pH. One beaker contains a basic solution and the other beaker contains an acidic solution Chapter 14

Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Objectives List five general properties of aqueous acids and bases. Name common binary acids and oxyacids, given their chemical formulas. List five acids commonly used in industry and the laboratory, and give two properties of each. Define acid and base according to Arrheniuss theory of ionization. Explain the differences between strong and weak acids and bases.

Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Acids 1. Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour taste. 2. Acids change the color of acid-base indicators. 3. Some acids react with active metals and release hydrogen gas, H2. Ba(s) + H2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + H2(g)

4. Acids react with bases to produce salts and water. 5. Acids conduct electric current. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Chapter 14

Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Acids, continued Acid Nomenclature A binary acid is an acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements. HF, HCl, HBr, and HI Binary Acid Nomenclature 1. The name of a binary acid begins with the prefix hydro-. 2. The root of the name of the second element follows this prefix.

3. The name then ends with the suffix -ic. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Acids, continued Acid Nomenclature, continued Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

Acids, continued Acid Nomenclature, continued An oxyacid is an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a nonmetal. HNO3, H2SO4 The names of oxyacids follow a pattern. The names of their anions are based on the names of the acids. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and

Bases Acids, continued Acid Nomenclature, continued Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Naming Oxyacids Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Some Common Industrial Acids Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is the most commonly produced industrial chemical in the world. Nitric Acid Phosphoric Acid Hydrochloric Acid

Concentrated solutions of hydrochloric acid are commonly referred to as muriatic acid. Acetic Acid Pure acetic acid is a clear, colorless, and pungent-smelling liquid known as glacial acetic acid. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Bases 1. Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter.

2. Bases change the color of acid-base indicators. 3. Dilute aqueous solutions of bases feel slippery. 4. Bases react with acids to produce salts and water. 5. Bases conduct electric current. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Properties of Bases Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids and Bases An Arrhenius acid is a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions, H+, in aqueous solution. An Arrhenius base is a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH, in aqueous solution.

Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids and Bases Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases

Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued Aqueous Solutions of Acids Arrhenius acids are molecular compounds with ionizable hydrogen atoms. Their water solutions are known as aqueous acids. All aqueous acids are electrolytes. Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued

Aqueous Solutions of Acids, continued Common Aqueous Acids Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued Strength of Acids A strong acid is one that ionizes completely in aqueous solution. a strong acid is a strong electrolyte HClO4, HCl, HNO3

A weak acid releases few hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. hydronium ions, anions, and dissolved acid molecules in aqueous solution HCN Organic acids (COOH), such as acetic acid Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued Aqueous Solutions of Bases

Most bases are ionic compounds containing metal cations and the hydroxide anion, OH. dissociate in water H2O NaOH(s ) Na (aq ) + OH (aq ) Ammonia, NH3, is molecular Ammonia produces hydroxide ions when it reacts with water molecules. NH4 (aq ) + OH (aq ) NH3 (aq ) + H2O(l )

Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids and Bases, continued Strength of Bases The strength of a base depends on the extent to which the base dissociates. Strong bases are strong electrolytes Chapter 14

Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Strength and Weakness of Acids and Bases Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Chapter 14 Section 1 Properties of Acids and Bases Relationship of [H3O+] to [OH]

Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Preview Lesson Starter Objectives

Brnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Monoprotic and Polyprotic Acids Lewis Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Lesson Starter List three terms that describe the person in the photo. The person has been described in many different ways, but he or she is still the same person. Acids and bases also can be described differently

based on the circumstances. Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Objectives Define and recognize Brnsted-Lowry acids and bases. Define a Lewis acid and a Lewis base. Name compounds that are acids under the Lewis definition but are not acids under the Brnsted-Lowry definition.

Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Brnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases A Brnsted-Lowry acid is a molecule or ion that is a proton donor. Hydrogen chloride acts as a Brnsted-Lowry acid when it reacts with ammonia. HCl NH3 NH4 + Cl Water can act as a Brnsted-Lowry acid.

NH4 (aq ) + OH (aq ) H2O(l ) + NH3 (aq ) Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Brnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases, continued A Brnsted-Lowry base is a molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor. Ammonia accepts a proton from the hydrochloric acid. It acts as a Brnsted-Lowry base. HCl NH3 NH4 + Cl

The OH ion produced in solution by Arrhenius hydroxide bases (NaOH) is the Brnsted-Lowry base. The OH ion can accept a proton Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Chapter 14 Brnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases, continued In a Brnsted-Lowry acid-base reaction, protons are transferred from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base).

HCl acid NH3 NH4 + Cl base Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Brnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Monoprotic and Polyprotic Acids A monoprotic acid is an acid that can donate only one proton (hydrogen ion) per molecule. HClO4, HCl, HNO3 only one ionization step HCl(g ) + H2O(l) H3O (aq ) + Cl (aq )

Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Monoprotic and Diprotic Acids Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Monoprotic and Polyprotic Acids, continued A polyprotic acid is an acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule.

H2SO4, H3PO4 Multiple ionization steps H SO ( l ) + H O(

l ) H O ( aq ) + HSO (1) 2 4 2 3

4 (aq ) H3O (aq ) + SO 2 (2) HSO4 (aq ) + H2O(l ) 4 (l ) Sulfuric acid solutions contain H3O+, HSO4 and SO2 ions 4 Chapter 14

Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Monoprotic and Polyprotic Acids, continued A diprotic acid is the type of polyprotic acid that can donate two protons per molecule H2SO4 A triprotic acid is the type of polyprotic acid that can donate three protons per molecule. H3PO4 Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories

Comparing Monoprotic and Polyprotic Acids Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Lewis Acids and Bases A Lewis acid is an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond. The Lewis definition is the broadest of the three acid definitions.

A bare proton (hydrogen ion) is a Lewis acid H (aq ) + : NH3 (aq ) [H NH3 ] (aq ) or [NH4 ] (aq ) Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Lewis Acids and Bases, continued The formula for a Lewis acid need not include hydrogen. The silver ion can be a Lewis acid Ag (aq ) + 2 : NH3 (aq ) [H3N Ag NH3 ] (aq ) or [Ag(NH3 )2 ] Any compound in which the central atom has three

valence electrons and forms three covalent bonds can react as a Lewis acid. BF3 (aq ) F (aq ) BF4 (aq ) Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Lewis Acids and Bases Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Chapter 14

Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Lewis Acids and Bases, continued Acid Base Definitions Chapter 14 Section 2 Acid-Base Theories Comparing Arrhenius, Brnsted-Lowry, and Lewis Acids and Bases Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Preview

Lesson Starter Objectives Conjugate Acids and Bases Amphoteric Compounds Neutralization Reactions Acid Rain Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Lesson Starter What is the meaning of the word neutralization. How is the word used in everyday life?

How is it likely to apply to acids and bases? Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Objectives Describe a conjugate acid, a conjugate base, and an amphoteric compound. Explain the process of neutralization. Define acid rain, give examples of compounds that can cause acid rain, and describe effects of acid rain. Chapter 14

Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Conjugate Acids and Bases The species that remains after a Brnsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton is the conjugate base of that acid. F (aq ) + H3O (aq ) HF(aq ) + H2O(l ) acid conjugate

base Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Conjugate Acids and Bases, continued Brnsted-Lowry acid-base reactions involve two acid-base pairs, known a conjugate acid-base pairs.

HF(aq ) + H2O(l ) F (aq ) + H3O (aq ) acid1 base2 base1 acid2 Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions

Neutralization Reactions Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Conjugate Acids and Bases, continued Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases The stronger an acid is, the weaker its conjugate base The stronger a base is, the weaker its conjugate acid HCl(g ) + H2O(l ) H3O (aq ) + Cl (aq )

strong acid base acid weak base Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Conjugate Acids and Bases, continued Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases, continued

Proton transfer reactions favor the production of the weaker acid and the weaker base. HClO4 (aq ) + H2O(l ) H3O (aq ) + ClO 4 (aq ) stronger acid stronger base weaker acid weaker base The reaction to the right is more favorable CH3COOH(aq ) + H2O(l ) H3O (aq ) + CH3COO (aq )

weaker acid weaker base stronger acid stronger base The reaction to the left is more favorable Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions

Conjugated Acids and Bases Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases Chapter 14

Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Amphoteric Compounds Any species that can react as either an acid or a base is described as amphoteric. example: water water can act as a base H2SO 4 (aq ) + H2O(l ) H3O (aq ) + HSO 4 (aq ) acid1 base2 acid2

base1 water can act asan acid NH3 (g ) + H2O(l ) NH4 (aq ) OH (aq ) base1 acid2 acid1

base2 Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Amphoteric Compounds, continued OH in a Molecule The covalently bonded IOH group in an acid is referred to as a hydroxyl group. Molecular compounds containing OH groups can be acidic or amphoteric. The behavior of a compound is affected by the number of oxygen atoms bonded to the atom

connected to the OH group. Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Oxyacids of Chlorine Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Amphoterism Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Neutralization Reactions Strong Acid-Strong Base Neutralization In aqueous solutions, neutralization is the reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules. A salt is an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.

HCl(aq ) + NaOH(aq ) NaCl(aq ) H2 O(l ) Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Neutralization Reaction Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Chapter 14

Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Acid Rain NO, NO2, CO2, SO2, and SO3 gases from industrial processes can dissolve in atmospheric water to produce acidic solutions. example: SO3 (g ) + H2O(l ) H2SO 4 (aq ) Very acidic rain is known as acid rain. Acid rain can erode statues and affect ecosystems. Chapter 14

Visual Concepts Acid Precipitation Chapter 14 Section 3 Acid-Base Reactions Chemical Weathering Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

End of Chapter 14 Show

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