INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL TOXICOLOGY CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING 29
INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL TOXICOLOGY CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING 29 CFR 1910 WELCOME COURSE OBJECTIVES Provide an Introduction to Toxicology Discuss Toxicology's Role in Todays Industry. Discuss General Terms Used in Toxicology. Discuss the Routes of Entry Into the Human Body. Discuss the Types of Hazards and Effects. Discuss the Types of Effects Upon the Human Body. Discuss Hazard Recognition & Control Skills. GENERAL TERMS
LETS DISCUSS SOME OF THE TERMS THAT WILL BE HELPFUL IN UNDERSTANDING THE BASICS OF TOXICOLOGY. INDUSTRIAL TOXICOLOGY SPECIFIC GRAVITY (Continued) Specific Gravity is an abstract or dimensionless number that compares the mass of a liquid to an equal volume of water. Specific Gravity is important to toxicology because, knowing the SG of a liquid can help determine how you could be exposed to it. 1 Gallon of water is 8.33 lbs, (8.33 lbs represents it density). 1 Gallon of Sulfuric Acid is 15.33 lbs. Specific gravity =
Density = mass volume 15.33 lb/gal (Sulfuric) = 1.84 8.33 lbs/gal (Water) SPECIFIC GRAVITY (Continued) Many chemicals are soluble in water, but when the liquid does not appreciably dissolve in water, the term immiscible is used. IMMISCIBLE IN WATER
Float on top if SG less than 1.0 Sink to the bottom if SG greater than 1.0 WATER WATER SOLUBLE IN WATER Easily mixes with water and dissolves VAPOR PRESSURE (Continued) The Pressure Exerted by a Vapor Against the Sides of a Closed
Container Is Called Vapor Pressure. It Is Temperature Dependent. As Temperature Increases, So Does Vapor Pressure. Vapor pressure is important in toxicology because Vapor Pressure Can Effect Dosages Received by Individuals in Enclosed Spaces. VAPOR DENSITY Vapor Density is the mass of gases and vapors as it is compared to the mass of an equal volume of air or other reference gas. VD greater than 1.0. Vapors are heavier than air and lay in low areas. VD less than 1.0. Vapors are lighter than air and will rise.
pH The pH of a Liquid Is the Numerical Measure of Its Relative Acidity or Alkalinity. Range Is From 0 - 14 Neutral Level Expressed 7.0 Above 7.0 Liquid Is More Alkaline or Basic Below 7.0 Liquid Is More Acidic COMMON ACIDS (pH 0-6) COMMON BASES (pH 8-14)
Pure Water Tap Water Coffee Wine Vinegar Lemon juice Gastric juice 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4
3 2 BASE NEUTRAL ACID pH CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY WITH EACH OTHER! LOW pH ACID BASE HIGH pH
pH CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY WITH YOU! ACID BASE INTRODUCTION TO TOXICOLOGY HAZARDOUS WASTE START DATE:______________ AMOUNT:__________________ CONTENTS:________________ HANDLE WITH CARE THE
STUDY OF POISONS INTRODUCTION TO TOXICOLOGY (Continued) ALL THINGS ARE POISONS, OR THERE IS NOTHING WITHOUT POISONOUS QUALITIES. IT IS ONLY THE DOSE WHICH MAKES A THING POISON. PARACELSUS (1493 - 1541)
INTRODUCTION TO TOXICOLOGY (Continued) TOXIN - Any of a group of poisonous, usually unstable compounds generated by microorganisms, plants or animals. Certain toxins are produced by specific pathogenic microorganisms and are the causative agents in various diseases, such as tetanus, diphtheria, etc.
TOXICITY - The effect a specific quantity or dosage of a specific toxin has on a living microorganism. This is not an absolute! GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY Hazardous Material. A Material That Falls Into One or More Of the Following Categories. Hazardous Materials Can Have One or Many Characteristics That Can Add to the Intensity of the Toxic Action of a Particular Solid, Liquid, or Gas. Ignitability Is Flammable or Combustible. Reactivity Can React With Itself or Other Materials.
Corrosivity Can Deteriorate Another Substance. Toxicity In Its Normal State Is Harmful to Living Things. GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued) EVERYTHING IS TOXIC; IT ALL DEPENDS ON THE DOSE How Well the Body Accepts a Substance Depends on:
The Type of Substance. The Amount (Dose) Absorbed. The Period of Time Over Which It Is Absorbed. The Susceptibility/Sensitivity of the Person Exposed. GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued) FOUR PRIMARY ROUTES INHALATION INGESTION ABSORPTION INJECTION GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued)
INHALATION Breathing and smoking causes us to inhale substances which enter the lungs. Substance inhaled into the lungs are readily absorbed into the blood stream. INHALATION INGESTION
ABSORPTION INJECTION GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued) INGESTION Swallowing a substance causes penetration into the blood stream via the stomach and small intestine.
INHALATION INGESTION ABSORPTION INJECTION GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued) FOOD CHAIN EXPOSURE We Could Potentially Eat Toxic Food START GROUND CONTAMINATION BARLEY
GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued) ABSORPTION Entering the body through the skin causes substances to enter the blood stream at a slower rate than by inhalation or absorption. However, the resulting entry and distribution within the body is the same. INHALATION INGESTION ABSORPTION INJECTION
GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued) INJECTION Injection occurs when substances are forced through this skin. This can occur as a result of such means as compressed air, or by having the skin abraded by a penetrating object.
INHALATION INGESTION ABSORPTION INJECTION GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued) EXPOSURE LIMITS SOURCES INCLUDE: American Conference of Gov. Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued)
EXPOSURE LIMITS American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists: Threshold Limit Values (TLV). Biological Exposure Indices (BEI). (Respiratory) (Dermal) 8 Hour Time Weighted Averages (TWA). - How Much a Worker Can Be Exposed to in an 8 Hr. Shift. Published by ACGIH Annually, Provides Exposure Levels. Legally Enforceable. GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued)
EXPOSURE LIMITS Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) Found in 29 CFR 1910.1000 (The Z Tables) Establishes OSHAs Exposure Levels Legally Enforceable GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY (Continued) EXPOSURE LIMITS National Institute for Occupational Safety And Health (NIOSH):
Recommended Exposure Limits (RELs) Used to Develop New OSHA Standards Found in: NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Health Standards IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH - IDLH An IDLH level represents a maximum concentration of any toxic, corrosive or asphyxiant substance that poses an immediate threat to life or would cause irreversible or delayed adverse health effects or would interfere with an individuals ability to escape from a hazardous atmosphere. IDLH levels are typically published by OSHA and NIOSH. In practice, when the concentration of a toxic substance in a given area is known, IDLH levels may be used for determining which type of breathing apparatus is needed when entering the area.
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE TLV - Threshold Limit Value: One of three categories of chemical exposure levels - TLV-TWA, TLV-STEL or TLV-C. TLV-TWA - Threshold Limit Value Time-Weighted Average: The time weighted average concentration for a normal 8hour workday and a 40 hour work week to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect. Should be used as an exposure guide rather than an absolute. THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (Continued) TLV-STEL - Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit: A 15 minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during the work day. TLV-C - Threshold Limit Value- Ceiling: The concentration
that should not ever be exceeded, even instantaneously. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXIC ACTION RATE OF ENTRY ROUTE OF EXPOSURE TOXIC ACTION AGE OF INDIVIDUAL STATE OF HEALTH PREVIOUS EXPOSURE LEVELS WORKPLACE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY AND HEREDITY FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXIC ACTION
(Continued) RATE OF ENTRY An IV Injection Can Be Administered Instantaneously Whereas, a Dose Absorbed Through the Skin May Take Several Minutes to an Hour to Absorb Into the Bloodstream. The Body Can Sometimes Defend Itself Against Dosages
Where The Rate of Entry is Slow. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXIC ACTION (Continued) ROUTE OF EXPOSURE A Dose Absorbed Through the Skin Will Be Deposited in the Blood Much Slower Than a Dose Inhaled Through the Lungs and Transferred Directly Into the Blood. Four Routes: INHALATION INGESTION ABSORPTION INJECTION
FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXIC ACTION (Continued) AGE OF INDIVIDUAL Older Persons Are Often More Sensitive to Toxic Action Than Are Younger Adults. With Aging Comes a Diminished Reserve Capacity in the Face of Toxic Stress. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXIC ACTION (Continued) STATE OF HEALTH
Pre-Existing Disease or Other Medical Conditions Can Result in Greater Sensitivity to Toxic Agents. An Individual With a Pre-Existing Sensitivity to a Known Material Should Not Be Placed in a Work Environment That Might Compound the Condition. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXIC ACTION (Continued) PREVIOUS EXPOSURE INDIVIDUAL
EXPOSURE HISTORY Previous Exposure to Work Place Chemicals or Vapors Can Sometimes Result in Cumulative Effects Within the Body. In Addition, Some People Can Develop a Sensitivity to These Materials Over Time. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXIC ACTION (Continued) WORKPLACE ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS CAUTION ENSURE EXHAUST VENTILATION IS OPERATING In Industries Such As Smelting or Steel Making, High Temperatures Are Encountered. As Well As Air Contaminants That Must Be Controlled. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOXIC ACTION (Continued)
INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY, HEREDITY, AND GENDER Males and Females may respond differently to the Same Material. Hereditary Factors Also Can Be of Importance. Genetic Defects May Render Certain Individuals More Sensitive to a Given Material. EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY
Acute Exposure: Usually Minutes, Hours or Several Days. Chronic Exposure: Regular Exposure Over Months, Years, or a Lifetime. The Toxicity of the Chemical or Material Combined With the Susceptibility of the Individual Determines Whether the Exposure Is Acute or Chronic. EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY (Continued) Latent Exposure: An injury or disease that remains undeveloped until an incubation period has elapsed. The period of time could be hours, days, months or years. The Toxicity of the Chemical or Material Combined With
the Susceptibility of the Individual Is a Key Factor. EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY (Continued) Irritant: A chemical substance that injures the tissues of the respiratory system and lungs, thereby causing inflammation of the respiratory passages. The Toxicity of the Chemical or Material Combined With the Susceptibility of the Individual Is a Key Factor. FACTORS AFFECTING EXPOSURE The Amount Entering the Body. The Length of Time of Exposure. The Rate of Absorption Into the Blood.
The Physical Nature of the Chemical. The Chemical Nature of the Chemical. The Age of the Individual. The Health of the Individual. MEASUREMENT OF TOXICITY PARTS PER MILLION - ppm PARTS PER BILLION - ppb PARTS PER TRILLION - ppt
LETHAL DOSE - LD50 LETHAL CONCENTRATION - LC50 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE - TLV IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH - IDLH MEASUREMENT OF TOXICITY (Continued) PARTS PER MILLION - ppm ONE PART IN ONE MILLION PARTS MEASUREMENT OF TOXICITY (Continued) PARTS PER BILLION - ppb
ONE PART IN ONE BILLION PARTS MEASUREMENT OF TOXICITY (Continued) PARTS PER TRILLION - ppt ONE PART IN ONE TRILLION PARTS MEASUREMENT OF TOXICITY Lethal Dose - LD50 The LD50 is the dosage, when administrated to laboratory animals, results in 50% fatalities. The expression is made in milligrams of the substance administered per body weight of the animal expressed in kilograms (mg/kg). LD50 typically
refers to dermal dosages. When extrapolated to humans, the lethal dose of an average person who weighs w kilograms is LD50 x w. MEASUREMENT OF TOXICITY Lethal Concentration - LC50 The LC50 is the concentration of a material that, normally express as parts per million (ppm) by volume, that when administrated to laboratory animals, kill half of them during the period of exposure. LC50 typically refers to airborne dosages. THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE - TLV The TLV is the upper limit of a toxin concentration to which an average healthy person may be repeatedly exposed on an allday, everyday basis without suffering adverse health effects.
TLV is Typically used for workplace exposure determinations. Gaseous substances in air, are usually express in: parts per million (ppm). Fumes or mists in air, are expressed in: milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). TLV values are set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH). EXPOSURE MODEL T I M E LC50 LD50
TLV PEL SAFE EXPOSURE 0 DOSE TOXINS IN OUR BODY TOXIN Inhaled Toxins Can Quickly Travel to Vital Organs and the Brain Causing Either Acute or Chronic Effects.
CARCINOGENIC: CANCER CAUSING AGENT BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS (Continued) TERATOGEN: (Latin - The Study of Monsters) The Study of Congenital Malformations Relatively New Discipline (1941)
First Correlated German Measles to Birth Defects Causes of Congenital Malformations - Heredity - Maternal Diseases Like German Measles - Maternal Viral Infections During Pregnancy - Maternal Malnutrition - Physical Injury - Ionizing Radiation Exposure - Chemical Exposure BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS (Continued) TERATOGEN AFFECTS IN LAB ANIMALS: Review the Respective Material Safety Data Sheet Chemicals Having Potential Teratogenic Effects - Quinine
- Boric Acid - Insecticides - Pesticides - Chloroform - Carbon Tetrachloride - Benzene - Xylene - Propylene Glycol BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS (Continued) TERATOGEN AFFECTS IN HUMANS: Review the Respective Material Safety Data Sheet Agents Having Conclusive Teratogenic Effects - Anesthetic Gases - Organic Mercury Compounds
- Ionizing Radiation - German Measles - Thalidomide BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS (Continued) MUTAGEN: Potential to Cause Mutation in the Genetic Code Can Cause Changes in Chromosomes Review the Respective Material Safety Data Sheet Agents Shown to Cause Potential Mutagenic Effects
CANCER Has a Potential to Cause Cancer CAUSING Can Induce a Malignant Tumor in Humans AGENT Can Cause or Accelerate Tumors Some Confirmed or Suspected Human Carcinogens - Acrylimide - Acrylonitrile - 4-Aminodiphenyl - Arsenic - Benzine - Benzidine - Beryllium
- Calcium Chromate - Chromium (Vi) - Ethylene Dichloride - Ethylene Oxide - Lead Chromate - Nickel Sulfide - Tetranitromethane - O-Tolidine - Vinyl Bromide - Xylidine - Zinc Chromates SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS AIR CONTAMINANTS Gases. Generally Used in a Compressed Form. Can Effect All Routes of Entry.
Vapors. Formed by Evaporation of Liquids or Solids. Amount Usually Depends Upon Exposed Surface Area, Temperature, and Vapor Pressure Of Substance. Can Be Deadly. Fumes. Usually Metallic and Formed by Welding, Cutting, or Brazing Operations. Extremely Hazardous to Inhale. Particulates. Composed of Solid or Liquid Particles That Are Suspended or Dispersed in Air. Such As Dust, Mists, or Smokes. Can Be Explosive And Hazardous to Breath. SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued) AIR CONTAMINANTS GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
If Youre Not Familiar With the Gas or Material, Find Out! Read the Material Safety Data Sheet! Read the Labels on Compressed Gas Containers. Observe Written Warnings! Dont Eat, Drink, or Smoke Around Airborne Materials. Ensure Work Area Is Ventilated. Wear Appropriate Respiratory Protection. SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued) ACID
ACIDS AND BASES Common Acids (pH 0-6) Hydrochloric Acid Hydrofluoric Acid Nitric Acid Phosphoric Acid Chromic Acid BASE
Common Bases (pH 8-14) Sodium Hydroxide (Lye) Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach) Aqueous Ammonia Potassium Hydroxide (Potash) Ammonium Hydroxide SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued)
ACIDS and BASES - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS If Youre Not Familiar With the Material, Find Out!
Read the Material Safety Data Sheet! Read the Labels on Containers. Observe Written Warnings! Dont Eat, Drink, or Smoke Around Chemicals. Change Your Cloths! Dont Take It Home! Ensure Work Area Is Ventilated. Wear Appropriate Protective Equipment. Clean up Small Spills to Prevent Being Mistaken For Water. For Large Spills, Contact Safety Officer. Store Acids Away From Bases to Prevent Reactions. Know the Reactions That Can Occur From Other Materials. Always Add Acid to Water, Never Water to Acid! SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued) CLASSES OF SOLVENTS
ORGANIC (CARBON BEARING) SOLVENTS: Organic Solvents Contain Carbon. Organic Solvents Include: Acetone, Gasoline, etc. Drastic Effects on the Central Nervous System Can Occur. AQUEOUS (WATER BEARING) SOLVENTS: Aqueous Solvents Contain Water. Solutions of Acids, Alkalis Are Classed As Aqueous Solvents. Engineering Controls Are Usually Required. Respiratory Protection Is Needed For Vapors. SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued)
ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTS INHALATION: Most Common Route of Entry. Causes Headache, Dizziness, Confusion, And Drowsiness. Odor Intensity is Usually Not a Good Determination Of Toxicity. Odors - More Could Mean Less, Less Could Mean More. Different Solvents Seek Different Target Organs In the Body. INGESTION:
Eating, Drinking, or Smoking Without Washing Hands First. Eating, Drinking, or Smoking Contaminated Consumables. Can Cause Severe Irritation of Gastro-Intestinal Tract. Easily Penetrates Mucous Membranes to Enter Blood Stream. SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued) ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTS ABSORPTION:
Prevent Skin Contact, Wear Gloves, Aprons, Etc. Can Occur Through Unbroken Skin or Mucous Membranes. Any Absorption Generally Will Cause Irritation Of Skin. Flush Skin for at Least Fifteen Minutes, Seek Medical Help. Never Wash Exposed Skin With Any Solvent. INJECTION: Usually Caused by Puncture Wounds. Compressed Air Can Also Cause Injection of Solvents.
Rapid Introduction of Solvents Into Bloodstream. May Inject Other Debris in Wound Causing Concern. SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued) SOLVENTS - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
If Youre Not Familiar With the Solvent, Find Out! Read the Material Safety Data Sheet! Read the Labels on Containers. Observe Written Warnings! Dont Eat, Drink, or Smoke Around Solvents. Change Your Cloths! Dont Take It Home! Ensure Work Area Is Well Ventilated. Wear Appropriate Protective Equipment. Use a Barrier Cream, If Youre Solvent Sensitive. Spills Must Be Contained, Immediately! For Large Spills, Contact Safety Officer. Know the Reactions That Can Occur. Never Discount Any Route-of-Entry!
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued) TYPES OF METALS METAL PARTICULATES: Come From Sand Blasting, Deburring, and Like Operations. Metals Can Take the Form of Airborne Dusts. Engineering Controls Are Usually Required. Respiratory Protection Is Needed Where Dust Is Not Controlled. FUMES:
Fumes Are Made up of Very Tiny Solid Metal Particles. Particles Are the Condensates of Vaporized Metal. Effects on the Human Body Can Be Disastrous. Think of the Different Types of Metals Used in Welding. SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued) TYPES OF METALS COPPER AND ZINC: Highly Toxic, Inhalation Most Common Route of Entry. Can Cause Metal Fume Fever (Severe Flu-Like Symptoms).
Target Organs Include, Kidneys, Respiratory System. CADMIUM: Highly Toxic, Inhalation Most Common Route of Entry. Smaller Particulates Are Trapped in Lungs And Absorbed. Dangerous Doses Can Be Asymptomatic for Hours. Known Human Carcinogen. Target Organs Include, Kidneys, Respiratory System. NICKEL: Can Be Absorbed Through Skin, or Lungs. Absorption Generally Least Hazardous Route of Entry.
Target Organs Include; CNS, Respiratory System. SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued) ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR METALS INHALATION: Most Common Route of Entry. Smaller Particulates Are Trapped in Lungs And Absorbed. INGESTION: Eating, Drinking, or Smoking Without Washing Hands First. Eating, Drinking, or Smoking Contaminated Consumables. ABSORPTION: Can Occur Through Unbroken Skin or Mucous Membranes. Absorption Generally Least Hazardous Route Of Entry. INJECTION: Usually Caused by Puncture Wounds Involving Metals.
Compressed Air Can Also Cause Injection of Metals. SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS (Continued) METALS - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
If Youre Not Familiar With the Metal, Find Out! Read the Material Safety Data Sheet! Read the Labels on Containers. Observe Written Warnings! Dont Eat, Drink, or Smoke Around Metal Dusts. Change Your Cloths! Dont Take It Home! Ensure Work Area Is Ventilated. Wear Appropriate Protective Equipment. Spills of Metals Must Be Contained, Not Raised! For Large Spills, Contact Safety Officer. Remember, Magnesium Is Water Reactive! Use Dry Sand to Extinguish Magnesium Fires. THE FINAL WORD
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