Network+ Guide to Networks 6th Edition

Network+ Guide to Networks 6th Edition

Network+ Guide to Networks 6th Edition Chapter 14 Ensuring Integrity and Availability Objectives Identify the characteristics of a network that keep data safe from loss or damage Protect an enterprise-wide network from malware Explain fault-tolerance techniques for storage, network design, connectivity devices, naming and addressing services, and servers Discuss best practices for network backup and recovery

Describe the components of a useful disaster recovery plan and the options for disaster contingencies Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 2 What Are Integrity and Availability? Integrity Soundness of networks programs, data, services, devices, connections Availability How consistently and reliably a file or system can be accessed

Uptime Measure of time functioning normally between failures Often expressed as percent uptime Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 3 Table 14-1 Availability and downtime equivalents Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 4

What Are Integrity and Availability? (contd.) Integrity and availability compromised by: Security breaches Natural disasters Malicious intruders Power flaws Human error

Follow guidelines to keep network highly available See Pages 646-647 of text Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 5 Malware Malicious software Program designed to intrude upon or harm system, resources Examples: viruses, Trojan horses, worms, bots Virus

Replicating program intent to infect more computers Copied to system without user knowledge Replicates through network connections or exchange of external storage devices Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 6 Malware (contd.) Trojan horse (Trojan) Program that disguises itself as something useful Actually harms your system Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition

7 Malware Types and Characteristics Malware categorized by location and propagation method Boot sector viruses

Macro viruses File-infector viruses Worms Trojan horses Network viruses Bots Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 8 Malware Types and Characteristics (contd.) Malware characteristics Encryption

Some viruses, worms, Trojan horses Stealth Hidden to prevent detection Disguised as legitimate programs Polymorphism Change characteristics every time they transfer to new system Use complicated algorithms; incorporate nonsensical commands Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 9

Malware Types and Characteristics (contd.) Malware characteristics (contd.) Time dependence Programmed to activate on particular date Can remain dormant and harmless until date arrives Logic bombs: programs designed to start when certain conditions met Malware can exhibit more than one characteristic Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 10

Malware Protection Effective malware protection requires: Choosing appropriate anti-malware program Monitoring network Continually updating anti-malware program Educating users Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 11

Malware Protection (contd.) Malware leaves evidence Some detectable only by anti-malware software User symptoms Unexplained file size increases Significant, unexplained system performance decline Unusual error messages

Significant, unexpected system memory loss Periodic, unexpected rebooting Display quality fluctuations Malware often discovered after damage done Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 12 Malware Protection (contd.) Anti-malware key software functions Signature scanning Compares files content with known malware signatures Integrity checking

Compares current file characteristics against archived version Monitoring unexpected file changes Receive regular updates from central network console Consistently report valid instances of malware Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 13 Malware Protection (contd.) Anti-malware software implementation Dependent upon environments needs

Key: deciding where to install software Desktop machines Server Balance protection with performance impact Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 14 Malware Protection (contd.) Anti-malware policies Rules for using anti-malware software Rules for installing programs, sharing files, using external disks

Management should authorize and support policy Anti-malware policy guidelines See Pages 651-652 of text Measures designed to protect network from damage, downtime Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 15 Fault Tolerance Capacity for system to continue performing Despite unexpected hardware, software malfunction

Failure Deviation from specified system performance level Given time period Fault Malfunction of one system component Can result in failure Fault-tolerant system goal Prevent faults from progressing to failures Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 16

Fault Tolerance (contd.) Degrees of fault tolerance Optimal level depends on file or service criticality Highest level System remains unaffected by most drastic problem Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 17 Environment Consider network device environment Protect devices from: Excessive heat, moisture Use temperature, humidity monitors

Break-ins Natural disasters Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 18 Power Blackout Complete power loss Brownout Temporary dimming of lights

Causes Forces of nature Utility company maintenance, construction Solution Alternate power sources Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 19 Power (contd.) Power flaws not tolerated by networks Types of power flaws that create damage Surge Momentary increase in voltage

Noise Fluctuation in voltage levels Brownout Momentary voltage decrease Blackout Complete power loss Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 20 Power (contd.)

Uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) Battery-operated power source Directly attached to one or more devices Attached to a power supply Prevents harm to device, service interruption UPS categories Standby Online

Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 21 Power (contd.) Standby UPS (offline UPS) Provides continuous voltage Switches instantaneously to battery upon power loss Restores power Problems

Time to detect power loss Device may have shut down or restarted Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 22 Power (contd.) Online UPS A/C power continuously charges battery No momentary service loss risk Handles noise, surges, sags Before power reaches attached device More expensive than standby UPSs

Factors to consider when choosing UPS Amount of power needed Period of time to keep device running Line conditioning Cost Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 23

Figure 14-1 Standby and online UPSs Courtesy of Schneider Electric Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 24 Power (contd.) Generators Powered by diesel, liquid propane, gas, natural gas, or steam Do not provide surge protection Provide electricity free from noise Used in highly available environments

Generator choice Calculate organizations crucial electrical demands Determine generators optimal size Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 25 Figure 14-2 UPSs and a generator in a network design Courtesy Course Technology/ Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition

26 Network Design Supply multiple paths for data travel Topology LAN: star topology and parallel backbone provide greatest fault tolerance WAN: full-mesh topology SONET technology Uses two fiber rings for every connection Can easily recover from fault in one of its links Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 27

Figure 14-3 Full-mesh WAN Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 28 Network Design (contd.) Review PayNTime example on Pages 657-658 Possible solutions: supply duplicate connection Use different service carriers Use two different routes Critical data transactions follow more than one path Network redundancy advantages

Reduces network fault risk Lost functionality, profits Disadvantage: cost Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 29 Network Design (contd.) Scenario: two critical links Capacity, scalability concerns Solution Partner with ISP Establish secure VPNs

See Figure 14-4 Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 30 Figure 14-4 VPNs linking multiple customers Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 31 Network Design (contd.) Scenario Devices connect one LAN, WAN segment to another

Experience a fault VPN agreement with national ISP Single T1 link supports five customers Figure 14-5 Single T1 connectivity Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 32 Network Design (contd.) Problem with arrangement of Figure 14-5 Many single points of failure T1 link failure

Firewall, router, CSU/DSU, multiplexer, or switch Solution Redundant devices with automatic failover Hot swappable devices Immediately assume identical component duties Cold spare Duplicate device on hand, not installed Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 33 Figure 14-6 Fully redundant T1 connectivity Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 34 Network Design (contd.) Failover capable or hot swappable components Desired for switches or routers supporting critical links Adds to device cost Link aggregation (bonding) Combination of multiple network interfaces to act as one logical interface Example: NIC teaming Load balancing

Automatic traffic distribution over multiple components or links Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 35 Figure 14-7 Link aggregation between a switch and server Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 36 Network Design (contd.) Naming and addressing services Failure causes nearly all traffic to come to a halt

Solution: maintain redundant name servers DNS caching servers Allows local name resolution Faster performance Reduces burden on master name server Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 37 Figure 14-8 Redundant name servers Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition

38 Network Design (contd.) DNS can point to redundant locations for each host name Use different IP addresses that all point to identical Web servers Round-robin DNS Use each IP address sequentially Load balancer Dedicated device for intelligent traffic distribution Considers traffic levels when forwarding requests

Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 39 Figure 14-9 Redundant entries in a DNS zone file Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 40 Network Design (contd.) CARP (Common Address Redundancy Protocol) Allows pool of computers to share IP addresses Master computer receives request

Parcels out request to one of several group computers Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 41 Figure 14-10 Round-robin DNS with CARP Courtesy Course Technology/ Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 42

Servers Critical servers Contain redundant components Provide fault tolerance, load balancing Server mirroring Fault-tolerance technique One device, component duplicates another's activities

Uses identical servers, components High-speed link between servers Synchronization software Form of replication Dynamic copying of data from one location to another Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 43 Servers (contd.) Server mirroring advantage Flexibility in server location Disadvantages

Time delay for mirrored server to assume functionality Toll on network as data copied between sites Hardware and software costs May be justifiable Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 44 Servers (contd.) Clustering Links multiple servers together Act as single server

Clustered servers share processing duties Appear as single server to users Failure of one server Others take over More cost-effective than mirroring For large networks Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 45 Servers (contd.) Clustering advantages over mirroring Each clustered server

Performs data processing Always ready to take over Reduces ownership costs Improves performance Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 46 Storage Data storage Issues of availability and fault tolerance apply Various methods available

Ensure shared data and applications never lost or irretrievable RAID (Redundant Array of Independent [or Inexpensive] Disks) Collection of disks Provide shared data, application fault tolerance Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 47 Storage (contd.) Disk array (drive) Group of hard disks

RAID drive (RAID array) Collection of disks working in a RAID configuration Single logical drive Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 48 Storage (contd.) Hardware RAID Set of disks, separate disk controller RAID array managed exclusively by RAID disk controller Attached to server through servers controller interface

Software RAID Software implements and controls RAID techniques Any hard disk type Less expensive (no controller, disk array) Performance rivals hardware RAID Several different types of RAID available Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition

49 Storage (contd.) NAS (Network Attached Storage) Specialized storage device, storage device group Provides centralized fault-tolerant data storage Difference from RAID Maintains own interface to LAN Advantages NAS device contains own file system Optimized for saving, serving files Easily expandable

No service interruption Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 50 Figure 14-11 Network attached storage on a LAN Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 51 Storage (contd.) Disadvantage No direct communication with network clients

NAS use Enterprises requiring fault tolerance, fast data access SANs (Storage Area Networks) Distinct networks of storage devices Communicate directly with each other, other networks Typical SAN contains multiple storage devices Connected to multiple, identical servers Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 52 Storage (contd.)

SAN advantages Fault tolerant Extremely fast Special transmission method Fiber-optic media, proprietary protocols Example: Fibre Channel Install in location separate from LAN served Provides added fault tolerance Highly scalable Faster, more efficient method of writing data Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 53

Storage (contd.) SAN disadvantages High cost Small SAN: $100,000 Large SAN: several million dollars More complex than NAS, RAID Training, administration efforts required Use Environments with huge data quantities requiring quick availability Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition

54 Figure 14-12 A storage area network Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 55 Data Backup Backup Copies of data or program files Created for archiving, safekeeping Store off site

Without backup: risk losing everything Many backup options available Performed by different software and hardware Use different storage media types Can be controlled by NOS utilities, third-party software Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 56 Backup Media and Methods Approach to selecting backup media, methods Ask questions to select appropriate solution

Optical media Media storing digitized data Uses laser to write data, read data Examples: CDs, DVDs Backup requirements Recordable CD or DVD drive, software utility Blu-ray Optical storage format Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 57 Backup Media and Methods (contd.)

DVD and Blu-ray DVD disadvantages Writing data takes longer than other media Requires more human intervention than other backup methods Tape backups Copying data to magnetic tape Requirements Tape drive connected to network Management software Backup media Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 58

Backup Media and Methods (contd.) Small network tape backups Stand-alone tape drives attached to each server Large network tape backups One large, centralized tape backup device Manages all subsystems backups Extremely large environments Robots retrieve, circulate tapes from tape storage library Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition

59 Backup Media and Methods (contd.) External disk drives (removable disk drives) Storage device attached temporarily to computer USB, PCMCIA, FireWire, CompactFlash port Simple to use, save, share data Temporary drive appears like any other drive Large data amount requirements Backup control features, higher storage capacity, faster read-write access Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition

60 Backup Media and Methods (contd.) Network backups Save data to another place on network Different server, another WAN location SAN, NAS storage device Online backup (cloud backup) Saves data to another companys storage array using Internet Implement strict security measures Automated backup, restoration processes

Evaluate online back up provider Test speed, accuracy, security, recovery Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 61 Backup Strategy Devise a strategy to perform reliable backups Document in accessible area Address various questions

Archive bit File attribute Set to on or off On indicates file must be archived Used by various backup methods Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 62 Backup Strategy (contd.) Full backup All data copied Uncheck archive bits

Incremental backup Copy data changed since last full, incremental backup Uncheck archive bits Differential backup Copy only data changed since last backup All data marked for subsequent backup Does not uncheck archive bits Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 63 Backup Strategy (contd.) Determine best backup rotation scheme

Plan specifies when and how often backups occur Goal Provide excellent data reliability without overtaxing network, requiring intervention Grandfather-Father-Son strategy Uses backup sets Daily (son) Weekly (father) Monthly (grandfather) Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 64 Figure 14-13 The Grandfather-Father-Son backup rotation scheme

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 65 Backup Strategy (contd.) Ensure backup activity recorded in backup log

Backup date Media identification Type of data backed up Type of backup Files backed up Backup location Establish regular verification schedule Attempt to recover files periodically Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 66 Disaster Recovery

Disaster recovery Restoring critical functionality, data After enterprise-wide outage Affecting more than single system, limited group Consider possible extremes Not relatively minor outages, failures, security breaches, data corruption Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 67 Disaster Recovery Planning Account for worst-case scenarios

Identify disaster recovery team Provide contingency plans Restore and replace: Computer systems Power Telephony systems Paper-based files Plan contains various sections Lessen critical data loss risk

Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 68 Disaster Recovery Contingencies Cold site Components necessary to rebuild network exist Not appropriately configured, updated, or connected Warm site Components necessary to rebuild network exist Some appropriately configured, updated, and connected Hot site

Components exist and match networks current state All appropriately configured, updated, and connected Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 69 Summary Integrity and availability: important concepts Malware aims to intrude upon or harm system Anti-malware software part of network protection Fault tolerance allows system to continue performing despite unexpected malfunction Various types of backup power supplies exist Network design can provide different levels of fault tolerance

Mirroring, clustering, RAID, NAS, and SAN can provide fault tolerance Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition 70

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