National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of ...

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of ...

A 3D cosmic ray detector on the Moon X. Moussas University of Athens [email protected] 3D cosmic ray time dependent distributions can be obtained using properly positioned cosmic ray detectors on the Moon. This system can give new insight to the study of the modulation of both galactic and solar cosmic rays It will provide measurements outside the Earths magnetosphere of: 1. the cosmic ray intensity time variability 2. the cosmic ray anisotropy time variability 3. Earth directed strong solar wind shocks and hence 4. space weather predictions complementary to other methods 5. time and directional variations of the spectrum, possibly variations of the composition and temperature of cosmic rays can also be measured 6. Magnetar activity studies will also benefit from such an observatory Towards a European Infrastructure for Lunar Observatories Bremen, Wednesday 23rd March 2005 The study of cosmic rays both galactic and solar continues to be of great importance to space sciences (origin, propagation, exotic objects) The cosmic ray spectral (not only the higher end) time and directional variability is of importance to cosmic sciences The Sun the 11 (or 22) year solar activity cycle & Cosmic Rays time variations of the Heliosphere: temperature, density, magnetic filed, velocity of the termination shock and radius E>5GeV CLIMAX NM 1-D shell model C R in te n s ity (a rb itra ry u n its ) E>400MeV 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995

2000 YEAR Cosmic ray 1D shell model (red), also for 400 MeV, > 5 GeV compared with Climax Neutron Monitor 2005 Cosmic ray fluxes, heat flux, anisotropies and temperature, density etc whenever we have directional flux n=a00 (1) measurments of a population of particles (e.g. solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, solar wind plasma) of well-defined energy resolution are available, new macroscopic fluid-like quantities can be rigorously estimated, thus describing the sub-flux referring to that energy range in fluid terms. We have derived analytically, exact closed relations for these quantities as functions of lower order spherical harmonics coefficients. Equation (1) gives the differential number density of the energetic particles. Equations (2), (3) give the components and the magnitude respectively of the mean velocity. Equation (4) states that first order anisotropy vector, A1 is parallel and proportional in magnitude to the differential mean particle velocity. Thermal pressure tensor vector components are written as in equations (5)-(10). Equation (11) gives the kinetic temperature of cosmc rays. Also the direction of heat flux Cosmic ray fluxes, anisotropies and temperature, density etc Cosmic ray fluxes, anisotropies and temperature, density etc See Cosmic Rays and Space Weather By Lev I. DORMAN Cosmic rays are used for forecasting of major geomagnetic storms accompanied by Forbush-effects. The global neutron monitor network is used as a large CR 3D detector This permits the prediction of the arrival of an interplanetary shock (CME) using the anisotropies of galactic cosmic rays (see also Dorman, Belov and colleagues). Anisotropies of CR can be measured using detectors on the Moon without the masking and dstortion of the magnetic filed of he Earth NM network, asymptotic directions of cosmic ray stations (asymptotic directions) Scheme of mechanisms of possible precursor effects in CR (Dorman et al 2003) ~2 days warning! Observations of a precursor effect in CR (from Dorman et al 2003) : Galactic cosmic ray pre-increase (white circles) and pre-decrease (grey circles) effects before the Sudden Storm Commencement (SSC) of great magnetic storm in September 1992, accompanied

with Forbush-decrease 70 Rozhdestvenskiy Lovelace Plaskett Froelich Poinsot Milankovic NansenShi Shen MerrillHeymans Thiessen Seares Mezentsev RobertsKarpinskiy Lindblad Schjellerup Schwarzschild Kirkwood Nother Stebbins Sommerfeld Gamow Dugan Emden Avogadro Paneth Oberth Dyson Bel'kovich Yablochkov Zsigmondy Olivier Birkhoff Rowland Yamamoto Omar Khayyam Stormer Poczobutt Tsinger Compton Coulomb Chappell van Rhijn Carnot Bekesy Swann D'Alembert Chapman Weber de Moraes Debye Slipher Esnault-Pelterie Montgolfier Perkin Chernyshev Segers Millikan GuillaumeDuner WegenerGullstrand Rayet Langevin Campbell Chandler

Bridgman Fabry Bragg Perrine Von Zeipel Kulik Schneller Winkler Ley Landau Ehrlich Wiener Thiel Becquerel Sisakyan von Neumann Golovin Avicenna Harkhebi Razumov Tesla Cantor Sumner Parsons MooreChampollion Hutton PetropavlovskiyCharlier Klute Appleton Gadomski Giordano Bruno Evershed Krylov Nernst Evdokimov Stearns Vestine Harriot Rontgen Nijland Healy Steno Sanford Shayn Nuvsl Teisserenc Blazhko Larmor Cockcroft Feoktistov Kovalevskaya Maxwell Hatanaka Trumpler Kepinski Seyfert Titov Laue Innes Espin Fitzgerald Joule Lomonosov Bobone

Ingalls Parenago Joliot Dante Artamonov Florensky Polzunov Mineur Freundlich Tikhomirov Komarov Shatalov Meggers Deutsch Foster Comrie McNally Belyaev Vernadskiy Marci Jackson Morse Siedentopf Bell Comstock Buys-Ballot OlcottDziewulski Konstantinov Shternberg Harvey NagaokaLeonov Mach Mitra Ohm Zernike Poynting Al-Biruni Weyl Gavrilov Bredikhin McMath Tsu Chung-Chi Kekule Mobius Virtanen Hoffmeister Nobel Kamerlingh Kostinskiy Ibn Yunus Raimond Kohlschutter Mees Henyey Hertz Grigg Hayford Pease Sharonov Meshcherskiy Glauber Guyot Kolhorster

Dirichlet Rutherford Safavrik Papaleksi RechtLobachevskiy Mills Bingham Zhukovskiy Michelson Al-Khwarizmi Tiselius Bergman Tsander Katchalsky Erro Mendeleev Dufay Mandelshtam Henderson MorozovSita Firsov Moissan Schuster Babcock Green Krasovskiy ChaucerKibalchich Hartmann Lenz Hertzsprung Gregory McAdie Leuschner Abul Wafa Fox Coriolis Congreve Vavilov Buisson Glazenap Saha Schliemann Lipskiy Kramarov Dewar Vesalius Korolev TammPannekoek Prager Necho Einthoven Couder Ventris Timiryazev Stratton Hirayama ChaplyginVil'ev Love Dellinger

Sechenov Ludwig Evans Lane Ganskiy Wan-Hoo Heaviside Marconi Perepelkin Plante Crookes Langemak Meitner Mechnikov Kearons Danjon Chauvenet Fridman Doppler Lowell Paschen Volkov Racah Khvolson Galois Ioffe Maunder Geiger Kondratyuk Ritz Lander Zwicky McKellar Backlund Arminski Denning Patsaev Litke Aitken Houzeau Grave Isaev Lodygin Il'in Bondarenko Hohmann Hilbert Sklodowska Bergstrand Balandin Fermi Sternfeld Vertregt Bok Cyrano Pirquet FryxellChalonge Stromgren Wilsing

Sniadecki Raspletin Andronov Gerasimovich Curie Murakami Izsak Alden Wroblewski Levi-CivitaFesenkov Perelman Nassau Plummer GolitsynEllerman Bawa Stark Orlov Edith Waterman Karima Walker Schaeberle Das Shuleykin Scaliger Sierpinski Holetschek Lauritsen Konoplev Mariotte Rumford Leeuwenhoek Zelinskiy PavlovSubbotin Birkeland O'Day Lampland Milne Smith KleymenovMcAuliffe Thomson Seidel Dryden Parkhurst Bolyai Chebyshev Resnik Jarvis Pizzetti Eotvos Oppenheimer Langmuir McNair Brouwer

Gernsback Steklov Lovell Blackett DavissonLeibnitz Coblentz Clark Bjerknes Drude BormanChaffee Obruchev Lundmark Chant Ramsay Rosseland Buffon Anders Maksutov Finsen Pogson Roche Oresme Lamb Carver Pauli White Nishina Leavitt von Karman Chretien Rydberg Grissom Hendrix Lebedev Cajori Garavito Crocco Alder Mendel Riedel Tseraskiy Cori Hopmann Karrer Cassegrain Chadwick Tiling Baldet Bose Hess StoneyBhabha Jeans Lippmann Poincare Kimura Abbe Priestley Planck Fizeau Chamberlin Haret Fechner

Cailleux Prandtl Cabannes Moulton Chappe Watson LemaitreBellinsgauzen Eijkman Berlage Lyman Sikorsky Minnaert Crommelin Alekhin Doerfel Wexler Numerov Brashear Hale Boltzmann Schrodinger Ashbrook Wiechert Idelson 60 6 detectors 40 30 50 20 10 -90-70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 -10 -20

-30 -40 -50 -60 -70 30 40 50 60 70 90 70 Rozhdestvenskiy Lovelace Plaskett Froelich Poinsot Milankovic NansenShi Shen MerrillHeymans Thiessen Seares Mezentsev RobertsKarpinskiy Lindblad Schjellerup Schwarzschild Kirkwood Nother Stebbins Sommerfeld Gamow Dugan Emden Avogadro Paneth Oberth Dyson Bel'kovich Yablochkov Zsigmondy Olivier Birkhoff Rowland Yamamoto Omar Khayyam Stormer Poczobutt Tsinger Compton Coulomb Chappell van Rhijn Carnot Bekesy Swann D'Alembert Chapman Weber

de Moraes Debye Slipher Esnault-Pelterie Montgolfier Perkin Chernyshev Segers Millikan GuillaumeDuner WegenerGullstrand Rayet Langevin Campbell Chandler Bridgman Fabry Bragg Perrine Von Zeipel Kulik Schneller Winkler Ley Landau Ehrlich Wiener Thiel Becquerel Sisakyan von Neumann Golovin Avicenna Harkhebi Razumov Tesla Cantor Sumner Parsons MooreChampollion Hutton PetropavlovskiyCharlier Klute Appleton Gadomski Giordano Bruno Evershed Krylov Nernst Evdokimov Stearns Vestine Harriot Rontgen Nijland Healy Steno Sanford Shayn Nuvsl Teisserenc Blazhko Larmor Cockcroft Feoktistov

Kovalevskaya Maxwell Hatanaka Trumpler Kepinski Seyfert Titov Laue Innes Espin Fitzgerald Joule Lomonosov Bobone Ingalls Parenago Joliot Dante Artamonov Florensky Polzunov Mineur Freundlich Tikhomirov Komarov Shatalov Meggers Deutsch Foster Comrie McNally Belyaev Vernadskiy Marci Jackson Morse Siedentopf Bell Comstock Buys-Ballot OlcottDziewulski Konstantinov Shternberg Harvey NagaokaLeonov Mach Mitra Ohm Zernike Poynting Al-Biruni Weyl Gavrilov Bredikhin McMath Tsu Chung-Chi Kekule Mobius Virtanen Hoffmeister Nobel Kamerlingh Kostinskiy Ibn Yunus

Raimond Kohlschutter Mees Henyey Hertz Grigg Hayford Pease Sharonov Meshcherskiy Glauber Guyot Kolhorster Dirichlet Rutherford Safavrik Papaleksi RechtLobachevskiy Mills Bingham Zhukovskiy Michelson Al-Khwarizmi Tiselius Bergman Tsander Katchalsky Erro Mendeleev Dufay Mandelshtam Henderson MorozovSita Firsov Moissan Schuster Babcock Green Krasovskiy ChaucerKibalchich Hartmann Lenz Hertzsprung Gregory McAdie Leuschner Abul Wafa Fox Coriolis Congreve Vavilov Buisson Glazenap Saha Schliemann Lipskiy Kramarov Dewar

Vesalius Korolev TammPannekoek Prager Necho Einthoven Couder Ventris Timiryazev Stratton Hirayama ChaplyginVil'ev Love Dellinger Sechenov Ludwig Evans Lane Ganskiy Wan-Hoo Heaviside Marconi Perepelkin Plante Crookes Langemak Meitner Mechnikov Kearons Danjon Chauvenet Fridman Doppler Lowell Paschen Volkov Racah Khvolson Galois Ioffe Maunder Geiger Kondratyuk Ritz Lander Zwicky McKellar Backlund Arminski Denning Patsaev Litke Aitken Houzeau Grave Isaev Lodygin Il'in Bondarenko

Hohmann Hilbert Sklodowska Bergstrand Balandin Fermi Sternfeld Vertregt Bok Cyrano Pirquet FryxellChalonge Stromgren Wilsing Sniadecki Raspletin Andronov Gerasimovich Curie Murakami Izsak Alden Wroblewski Levi-CivitaFesenkov Perelman Nassau Plummer GolitsynEllerman Bawa Stark Orlov Edith Waterman Karima Walker Schaeberle Das Shuleykin Scaliger Sierpinski Holetschek Lauritsen Konoplev Mariotte Rumford Leeuwenhoek Zelinskiy PavlovSubbotin Birkeland O'Day Lampland Milne Smith KleymenovMcAuliffe Thomson Seidel Dryden

Parkhurst Bolyai Chebyshev Resnik Jarvis Pizzetti Eotvos Oppenheimer Langmuir McNair Brouwer Gernsback Steklov Lovell Blackett DavissonLeibnitz Coblentz Clark Bjerknes Drude BormanChaffee Obruchev Lundmark Chant Ramsay Rosseland Buffon Anders Maksutov Finsen Pogson Roche Oresme Lamb Carver Pauli White Nishina Leavitt von Karman Chretien Rydberg Grissom Hendrix Lebedev Cajori Garavito Crocco Alder Mendel Riedel Tseraskiy Cori Hopmann Karrer Cassegrain Chadwick Tiling Baldet Bose

Hess StoneyBhabha Jeans Lippmann Poincare Kimura Abbe Priestley Planck Fizeau Chamberlin Haret Fechner Cailleux Prandtl Cabannes Moulton Chappe Watson LemaitreBellinsgauzen Eijkman Berlage Lyman Sikorsky Minnaert Crommelin Alekhin Doerfel Wexler Numerov Brashear Hale Boltzmann Schrodinger Ashbrook Wiechert Idelson 60 26 detectors 40 30 50 20 10 -90-70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20

-10 0 10 20 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 30 40 50 60 70 90 A 3D cosmic ray detector on the Moon 3D cosmic ray time dependent distributions can be obtained using properly positioned cosmic ray detectors on the Moon. This system can give new insight to the study of the modulation of both galactic and solar cosmic rays It will provide measurements outside the Earths magnetosphere of: 1. the cosmic ray intensity time variability 2. the cosmic ray anisotropy time variability 3. Earth directed strong solar wind shocks and hence 4. space weather predictions complementary to other methods 5. time and directional variations of the spectrum, possibly variations of the composition and temperature of cosmic rays can also be measured 6. Magnetar activity studies will also benefit from such an observatory

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