Naming Compounds - Mrs. Spencer's Science Class

Naming Compounds - Mrs. Spencer's Science Class

Naming Compounds Binary Compounds are composed of two types of elements such as H2O or KBr, not necessarily just two atoms. Diatomic molecules consist of two atoms of the same type such as H2 and O2. 1. Binary Ionic Compounds Metalnonmetal such as NaCl and CaCl2. 2. Binary Covalent Compounds Nonmetalnonmetal such as H2O and CO2 2 Binary ionic compounds

contain positive cations and negative anions. Type I compounds Metal present forms only one cation. Type II compounds Metal present can form 2 or more cations with different charges.

Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 3 Type I Compounds Metals (Groups I, II, and III) and Non-Metals Metal _________ Sodium + Non-Metal Chlorine _________ide Sodium Chloride NaCl Metal _________ Calcium + Non-Metal Bromide _________ide

Calcium Bromide CaBr2 Aluminun + Non-Metal Oxide_________ide Metal _________ Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 Common Simple Cations and Anions Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 5 Rules for Naming Type I Ionic Compounds 1. The cation is always named first and the anion second. 2. A simple cation takes its name from the name of

the element. 3. A simple anion is named by taking the first part of the element name (the root) and adding ide. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 6 Binary Ionic Compounds (Type I) Examples: KCl Potassium chloride MgBr2 Magnesium bromide

CaO Calcium oxide Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 7 Exercise What is the name of the compound SrBr2? a) b) c) d) strontium bromine sulfur bromide

strontium dibromide strontium bromide Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 8 Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II) with Transition Metals Metals in these

compounds can form more than one type of positive charge. Charge on the metal ion must be specified. Roman numeral indicates the charge of the metal cation. Transition metal cations usually require a Roman numeral. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 9 Type II Compounds Metals (Transition Metals) and Non-Metals

Metal ______ Iron +Roman Numeral (__) III + Non-Metal Bromine ________ide Iron (III) Bromide FeBr3 Compare with Iron (II) Bromide FeBr2 Metals (Transition Metals) and Non-Metals Older System Metal (Latin) _______ Ferrous + ous or ic +Bromine Non-Metal ________ide Ferrous Bromide FeBr2 Compare with Ferric Bromide FeBr3 10

Common Type II Cations 11 Rules for Naming Type II Ionic Compounds 1. The cation is always named first and the anion second. 2. Because the cation can assume more than one charge, the charge is specified by a Roman numeral in parentheses. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 12 Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II)

Examples: CuBr Copper(I) bromide FeS Iron(II) sulfide PbO2 Lead(IV) oxide Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

13 Exercise What is the name of the compound CrO2? a) b) c) d) chromium oxide chromium(II) oxide chromium(IV) oxide chromium dioxide Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 14

Exercise What is the correct name of the compound that results from the most stable ion for sulfur and the metal ion that contains 24 electrons? a) b) c) d) iron(III) sulfide chromium(II) sulfide nickel(III) sulfate iron(II) sulfide Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 15

Rules for Naming Type III Binary Compounds Formed between two nonmetals. 1. The first element in the formula is named first, and the full element name is used. 2. The second element is named as though it were an anion. 3. Prefixes are used to denote the numbers of atoms present. 4. The prefix mono- is never used for naming the first element. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 16 Type III Compounds

Non-Metals and Non-Metals Use Prefixes such as mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, etc. CO2 Carbon dioxide CO Carbon monoxide PCl3 Phosphorus trichloride CCl4 Carbon tetrachloride N2O5 Dinitrogen pentoxide CS2 Carbon disulfide 17 Prefixes Used to Additional Prefixes Indicate Numbers 9 nonadecain Chemical Names 1011 undeca12

dodeca- 13 trideca- 14 tetradeca- 15 pentadeca- 16

hexadeca- 17 heptadeca- 18 octadeca- 19 nonadeca- 20 icosa

18 Binary Covalent Compounds (Type III) Examples: CO2 Carbon dioxide SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride N2O4

Dinitrogen tetroxide Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 19 Exercise What is the name of the compound SeO2? a) b) c) d) selenium oxide selenium dioxide selenium(II) oxide selenium(IV) dioxide

Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 20 Flow Chart for Naming Binary Compounds Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 21 Lets Practice! Name the following. CaF2 K2S CoI2

SnF2 SnF4 OF2 CuI2 CuI SO2 SrS LiBr Calcium Flouride Potassium Sulfide Cobalt (II) Iodide or Cobaltous Iodide Tin (II) Fluoride or Stannous Fluoride Tin (IV) Fluoride or Stannic Fluoride Oxygen diflouride Copper (II) Iodide or Cupric Iodide Copper (I) Iodide or Cuprous Iodide

Sulfur dioxide Strontium Sulfide Lithium Bromide 22 Polyatomic ions are charged entities composed of several atoms bound together. They have special names and must be memorized. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 23 Names of Common Polyatomic Ions

(page 101) 24 Naming ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions follows rules similar to those for binary compounds. Ammonium acetate Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 25 Examples NaOH

Sodium hydroxide Mg(NO3)2 Magnesium nitrate (NH4)2SO4 FePO4 Ammonium sulfate Iron(III) phosphate Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 26

Overall Strategy for Naming Chemical Compounds Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 27 Exercise What is the name of the compound KClO3? a) b) c) d) potassium chlorite potassium chlorate

potassium perchlorate potassium carbonate Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 28 Exercise Examine the following table of formulas and names. Which of the compounds are named correctly? a) b) c) d) I, II

I, III, IV I, IV I only Formula Name I P 2 O5 Diphosphorus pentoxide II ClO2

Chlorine oxide III PbI4 Lead iodide IV CuSO4 Copper(I) sulfate Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

29 Acids Acids can be recognized by the hydrogen that appears first in the formulaHCl. Molecule with one or more H+ ions attached to an anion. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 30 Rules for Naming Acids

If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix hydro and the suffix ic attached to the root name for the element. Examples: HCl Hydrochloric acid HCN Hydrocyanic acid H2S Hydrosulfuric acid Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 31

Acids That Do Not Contain Oxygen Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 32 Rules for Naming Acids If the anion contains oxygen: The suffix ic is added to the root name if the anion name ends in ate. Examples: HNO3 Nitric acid H2SO4 Sulfuric acid HC2H3O2 Acetic acid

Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 33 Rules for Naming Acids If the anion contains oxygen: The suffix ous is added to the root name if the anion name ends in ite. Examples: HNO2 Nitrous acid H2SO3 Sulfurous acid HClO2 Chlorous acid Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

34 Some Oxygen-Containing Acids Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 35 Flowchart for Naming Acids Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 36 Exercise Which of the following compounds is named incorrectly?

a) KNO3 potassium nitrate b) TiO2 titanium(II) oxide c) Sn(OH)4 tin(IV) hydroxide d) PBr5 phosphorus pentabromide e) H2SO3 sulfurous acid Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 37 Examples Sodium hydroxide

Potassium carbonate H2SO4 Dinitrogen pentoxide K2CO3 Sulfuric acid

NaOH N2O5 Cobalt(III) nitrate Co(NO3)3 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 38 Exercise A compound has the formula XCl3 where X could

represent a metal or nonmetal. What could the name of this compound be? a) b) c) d) phosphorus trichloride carbon monochloride tin(IV) chloride magnesium chloride Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 39 Lets Practice Some More! HF

Na2CO3 H2CO3 KMnO4 HClO4 H2S NaOH CuSO4 PbCrO4 H2O NH3 Hydroflouric acid Sodium carbonate Carbonic acid Potassium permanganate Perchloric acid Hyrdosulfuric acid

Sodium hydroxide Copper (II) sulfate or Cupric sulfate Lead (II) chromate or Plubous chromate Hydrooxic acid (nojust water) Nitrogen trihydride (no..just ammonia) 40

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