Muscular System Animal movement is based on contraction of muscles working against part of the skeleton Muscle Tissue Cells that contract Three types of muscle tissue: 1. Skeletal
2. Cardiac 3. Smooth Types of Muscle Tissue Skeletal: voluntary attached to bones striated: repeating units of contractile proteins, actin and myosin long, cylinders
multinucleated many mitochondria Types of Muscle Tissue Cardiac: involuntary only in the heart unit contractions due to gap junctions
branched striated Types of Muscle Tissue Smooth: involuntary walls of organs tapered cells unstriated
Classification of muscle Voluntary Involuntary Skeletal Cardiac
Smooth Limbs Heart Viscera Striated
Non-striated Note: Control, Location and Structure Muscle Control Type of muscle
Nervous control Type of control Example Skeletal
Skeletal Controlled by CNS Voluntary Lifting a glass
Cardiac Regulated by ANS Involuntary Heart beating
Smooth Controlled by ANS Involuntary Peristalsis REMEMBER! Tendon connects muscle to bone
Ligament connects bone to bone Tendons Muscles are attached to TWO different bones by tendons. When the muscle contracts only ONE bone moves. The place where the muscle is attached to the stationary bone is called the Origin.
The place where the muscle is attached to the moving bone is called the Insertion. Muscles Pull NEVER Push!! Muscles only contract and relax Contraction (=shortening) of a muscle pulls a bone Antagonist Muscle Pairs
To make a joint move in two directions, you need two muscles that can pull in opposite directions. Antagonistic muscles are pairs of muscles that work against each other.
One muscle contracts while the other one relaxes Muscles work in Antagonistic Pairs Flexor and Extensor Flexor = decreases the angle between two bones
Extensor = increases the angle between two bones Extensor Flexor True or False Muscles cause movement by pushing and
pulling on the bones of the skeleton. True or False Muscles cause movement by pushing and pulling on the bones of the skeleton. FALSE! Muscles NEVER push. They can only pull.
Short Answer List the three types of muscle tissue. Short Answer List the three types of muscle tissue. Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle
Multiple Choice Voluntary muscle tissue is also called A. skeletal muscle. B. smooth muscle. C. cardiac muscle. D. All of the above. Multiple Choice Voluntary muscle tissue is also called
A. skeletal muscle. B. smooth muscle. C. cardiac muscle. D. All of the above. Multiple Choice A muscle that decreases the angle between two bones is called A. an extensor.
B. a flexor. C. a tendon. D. an antagonistic pair. Multiple Choice A muscle that decreases the angle between two bones is called A. an extensor. B. a flexor.
C. a tendon. D. an antagonistic pair. Frontalis Trapezius Sternocleidomastoid Deltoid
Pectoralis major Rectus abdominis Biceps brachii Sartorius Rectus femoris
brachii Latissimus dorsi Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris Gastrocnemius
Sartorius Skeletal Muscle Organization Skeletal muscle fibers (= cells) are bundled into packages called fascicle Skeletal Muscle Organization Fibers (=cells) are made up of myofibrils that consist of actin (thin filament) and
myosin (thick filament) Sarcomere repeating units of actin and myosin within a myofibril Myosin (Thick Filament) Actin (Thin Filament)
Sliding Filament Model Mechanism for Muscle Contraction When the muscle is at rest, a long, rod-like tropomyosin molecule blocks the myosin-binding sites that are instrumental in forming cross bridges. When another protein complex, troponin, binds calcium ions, the actin binding sites are exposed, cross-bridges with myosin can form, and contraction begins.
Sliding Filament Model (continued) Ca+ comes from the sacroplasmic reticulum in the plasma membrane around each myofibril Cross Bridging b/t Actin and Myosin Sliding Filament Theory Animations
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