MR. PORTERS APUSH POWERPOINT CHAPTER 9 Articles of Confederation and the Road to a Constitution 1776-1789 Growth of equality after 1776 All men are created equal (white and male) Most states reduced (but did not eliminate)
property requirements for voting By 1800, indentured servitude was eliminated Growth of trade organizations for artisans End of primogeniture The Status of Slavery
1800 Womens equality Few women escaped from traditional roles N.J. briefly allowed women to vote Abigail Adams teased her husband that women might start their own revolution if they did not get political rights In spite of this, most women continued in
traditional roles The concept of republican motherhood Women were entrusted to teach young people moral education and proper republican ideals Elevated womens status and expanded educational opportunities (so they could teach the young)
Economic Issues States seized former royal lands accelerating the spread of economic democracy The excesses of the French Revolution did not happen because the US had land to give to its discontented people Economic drawbacks of independence Britain traded within its empire as much as
possible American ships were barred from British and British West Indies ports Navigation Laws and British trade restrictions affected US ships more than before independence Economic and social problems after the war Rampant speculation and profiteering during the war State governments borrowed $ they couldnt repay
Runaway inflation Congress did not pass effective economic laws Average person was probably worse off after the war New rich class of profiteers; once wealthy people (especially Loyalists) were now poor War and revolution led to disrespect for law and taxes From 1776 to 1781 the colonies considered themselves separate and sovereign states
Coined their own money, raised their own armies and even passed tariffs on goods from other states Second Continental Congress Only a conference of ambassadors from 13 colonies, not an actual government Controlled some aspects of foreign policy and military affairs, but without real authority The biggest problem in ratifying the Articles was
western land claims Many states, but not all, had Western land claims States with land claims could sell their extra land to pay off debts from Revolution States without claims could not do this, although they fought in the Revolution also States without land claims wanted western land turned over to the national government
Western Land Given to the U.S, 17821802 The Northwest Territory Land Ordinance of 1785 Land of the Old Northwest sold; with $ to go to paying off the national debt Land surveyed and divided into 6 mile square
townships Northwest Ordinance of 1787 When a territory had 60,000 people, it was accepted into the Union as a state fully equal with other states Also forbade slavery in Old Northwest, although the few slaves already there were exempted
Saved the US from a future revolution of East versus West Law used to expand US territory across continent England continues hostilities and seeks to restrict trade and growth Some Americans want restrictions on British imports; this was not successful because:
Congress could not control commerce States refused to adopt a uniform tariff policy Some states lowered tariffs to get more British trade Restrictions probably would have hurt America more than
Britain International Problems Under the Articles of Confederation Spain openly unfriendly to America, even though they had fought with France (against Britain) during the Revolution Controlled mouth of Mississippi; used by US farmers to ship produce overseas; in 1784 Spain closed river
to American commerce, threatening the West Claimed a large area north of Gulf of Mexico (which had been given to the US by the British in 1783) Controlled Florida (which had been conquered by the Spanish during the Revolution) Worked with the Indians to stop US expansion at the Appalachians Main
Areas of Spanish and British Influence After 1783 Pirates in North African states threatened US shipping and captured US sailors
British had purchased protection, which Americans had benefited from when they were colonies US too weak to fight, too poor to bribe Problems still persist today off the coast of Africa (Somalia Pirates) Economic problems in the mid-1780s Some states refused to pay $ to Congress
States complain about the power of Congress Public debt was increasing and US credit abroad was doing poorly. Some states passed tariffs on goods imported from other states Some states printed paper currency that quickly depreciated because it was not backed by gold Shays Rebellion 1786
Poor farmers in western Massachusetts Farmers losing farms because of foreclosures and non-payment of taxes (which were high to pay off the states Revolutionary War debt) War veteran Daniel Shays led the debtors Marched to courthouses (where foreclosures were conducted) to enforce their demands with guns Fighting between states over commerce led to
a convention 1786 Annapolis (Maryland) Called by Virginia to discuss trade issues 9 states sent delegates; only 5 came, so no action could be taken because there was not a majority Hamilton called on Congress to appoint a convention to meet in Philadelphia in 1787 to address problems under the Articles of Confederation
May 25, 1787 55 delegates assembled in Philadelphia from all states except R. Island The small number and secrecy allowed compromise The delegates were extremely high caliber men Jefferson called them demigods (part men, part gods) Most were lawyers; most had experience
writing constitutions in their own states George Washington unanimously elected president Benjamin Franklin (81 years old) was the oldest member and took the role of elder statesman James Madison was named father of the Constitution for his important
contributions and he took careful notes of the debates Alexander Hamilton argued for a powerful national government but convinced no one Most radicals from Revolution were not at the convention Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Thomas Paine were in Europe
Samuel Adams and John Hancock were not elected Patrick Henry (a strong supporter of states rights) refused to attend because he smelled a rat From the Start Agreement was hard to find between the different factions Virginia Plan (the large-state plan)
Representation in bicameral (2 houses) Congress would be based on population New Jersey Plan (the small-state plan) Representation in unicameral (1 house) Congress would be equal, regardless of size or population (as under the Articles) Argument over these 2 plans almost broke
up the convention The Great Compromise (aka Connecticut) Larger states got proportional (based on population) representation in the House of Representatives Smaller states got equal representation in the Senate Every tax or revenue bill had to start in the
House (where the people had greater impact) Executive Branch Was Intended to be Weak Can appoint domestic officers and veto legislation but checked by Congress Had power to wage war, but not power to declare war Electing the President was also a compromise
between large and small states 12th Amendment would change it Sectional divisions over slavery Should slaves in the South (who could not vote)
count as a person in apportioning direct taxes and representation in the House of Representatives? South said yes; North said no The delegates eventually decided that a slave counted as 3/5 of a person (this is known as the three-fifths compromise) Ending the slave trade Most states wanted to end the slave trade
However, Southern states (especially South Carolina and Georgia) strongly protested Decided that the slave trade could continue until the end of 1807 at which point Congress could vote on the issue Congress ended the slave trade immediately in 1808 Most state constitutions forbade the slave trade Checks and Balances Safeguards to protect against too much
democracy Federal judges were appointed for life President elected indirectly by the Electoral College Only for the House of Representatives did (propertyowning) citizens vote directly Private Property Rights Would be Protected The Constitution did not please everyone Only 42 of the original 55 stayed all summer Only 39 of the 42 people there signed; others went
back to their states to campaign against the Constitution Compromise led to a workable solution that most could accept Now the problem was getting at least 3/4th of the states (9) to ratify it. It would not be easy Federalists vs. Anti-federalists Ratifying the Constitution
Rhode Island was certain to veto the Constitution (had not sent delegates to convention) Need 9 states to ratify it Went over the head of Congress (that had called the convention) and state legislatures (that had sent the delegates) Appealed directly to the people (who voted for special conventions to ratify the Constitution) A divided Congress agreed to this system and sent the
Constitution to the people Ratifying 1787 Anti-federalist attacks on the Constitution It was anti-democratic because written by elites Sovereignty of states taken away Individual rights were threatened (because
there was no bill of rights) Feared the creation of a standing army There was no reference to God Questionable ratification procedure (with only 9 states/3-4ths not unanimity) The Ratification Process Maryland, South Carolina, and New Hampshire followed Massachusetts which agreed only
after securing a promise of a Bill of Rights to follow ratification. By June 21, 1788 9 states had ratified, making the Constitution law for those states However, the Constitution was unlikely to take hold as long as the last 4 states (especially New York and Virginia) did not ratify Virginia
Strong opposition to Constitution, including from Patrick Henry George Washington, James Madison, and John Marshall argued for Constitution Agreed to ratification in a close vote when New Hampshire ratified, since the Constitution was now adopted and Virginia could not remain independent
New York Strongly anti-federalist in the state convention Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison wrote a series of articles in newspapers that became known as the Federalist Essays explanations of how the Constitution would work although written anonymously
everyone knew who was writing them Finally ratified by very close vote Hamilton is the leading Federalist and a favorite of the wealthy and investment circle Ratification of the Constitution Key to the Constitution Republican Form of Government has three
great Principles: 1.Govt based upon consent of the People 2.Powers of Govt should be limited 3. Each branch of must be checked and limited by another Locke; Hobbes; Montesquieu; Rousseau The Constitution is a bundle of Compromises but key intent is to
protect private property and establish a strong financial monetary system in order to gain the support of the wealthy who are still upset by Shays Rebellion
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