Mossies in Cyberspace: The NSW Arbovirus Surveillance Program ...

Mossies in Cyberspace: The NSW Arbovirus Surveillance Program ...

Stephen L. Doggett Senior Hospital Scientist Department of Medical Entomology Institute for Clinical Pathology & Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Westmead NSW 2145 Overview Ticks introduction

Biology/ecology/lifecycle Management Avoidance Ticks Worldwide about 800 sp. Australia 75 (~15 attack humans)

2 groups Soft & Hard ticks Most important - Ixodes holocyclus Paralysis tick, scrub, bush, shell back Seed, grass (larval stage) Tick Samples to DME

1988-2013: 671 specimens Amblyomma: 3.7% Aponomma: 0.3% Haemaphysalis: 1.8%

Rhipicephalus: 1.3% Ixodes: 93% Ixodes holocyclus: (98%) Adults: 37%, Nymph: 26%, Larvae: 37% Adult Female Adult Male

1mm Nymph Larva Tick Life Cycle Paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus

Host Seeking Behaviour 0.5m 3m When are ticks active?

Most of the year Survival dependant on humidity Most active: Following rain

Periods of high humidity Larvae far more common than other stages High mortality in larval stage to nymph Animal Hosts Red-necked Wallaby

Norwegian Rat Northern Brown Bandicoot House Mouse Bush Rat Southern Brown Bandicoot

Magpie Grasslands Melomys Long-nosed Bandicoot Australian Raven Water Rat

Mountain Brushtail Possum Domestic Fowl Crimson Rosella Common Brushtail Possum

Human Pied Butcherbird Brush-tailed Phascogale Dog Echidna

Koala Cat Common Dunnart Swamp Wallaby Pig

Feathertail Glider Rabbit Eastern Grey Kangaroo Red-legged Pademelon Black Rat

After Roberts (1970) Main Host Bandicoot Tick Removal MAKE SURE YOU REMOVE

THE HEAD!!! Tick Management Cultural Control: Behaviour modification Physical Control: Exclusion fencing

Biological Control

Parasites/pathogens/predators Host removal Habitat modification Chemical Control Repellents Habitat treatment

Host treatment Tick Control Methods Control Method Control Duration Fire Host Removal

Chemical Treatment Personal Protection Environmental Impact Habitat Modification Cultural Control

Avoid ticky habitat Avoid good ticky times After rain, high humidity

Wear light coloured clothing Check oneself regularly during & after Tuck pants into socks, shirts into pants

Remove clothing, place into hot dryer Use repellents/permethrin on clothing Formulations

Gimmicks APVMA Australian Pesticides & Veterinary Medicines Authority (National Registration Authority: NRA)

For insecticides/repellents, assess: Human Toxicity Product Efficacy Environmental Impacts Active

Approved use Registered?

Directions Repellent Actives DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) Picaridin Lemon Eucalyptus Oil (PMD) IR3535 Citronella, melaleuca oil

Natural Organic = Safe & Effective Repellent Efficacy

Mosquitoes Fradin & Day, NEJM (2002) Active %

Protection Time DEET 24% 302m DEET

20% 234m DEET 6.7% 112m

Citronella 10% 20m Citronella 5%

14m Citronella (WB) 25% 0.2m Permethrin Impregnated Clothing

Permethrin = toxicant not a repellent Two forms: DIY, dip clothing Impregnated fabrics (IF)

Studies show: IF better protection than DIY IF more washes than DIY IF less environmental impacts Permethin better protection than repellents Widely used by armies Permethrin Impregnated Clothing?

Human Safety Risk analysis What is worse: bites or repellents? DEET first registered, 1957

Billions of uses Recommended by WHO & CDC Only product recommended by CDC US EPA: adverse reactions 1:100million EPA: permethrin factory-treated clothing is unlikely to pose any significant acute or chronic hazard to people

Read & heed the label! Host Exclusion Fencing Habitat Modification Reduce overhanging foliage

Clearing brush/bushes Removal of leaf litter/mulch Maintain lawns <15cm

Cementing Inc. sunlight to ground, dec. humidity

Achieves most prolonged level of control Chemical Control Advantages Rapid control, 97% within 24 hours Cost effective Less environmental damage

Disadvantages Not tick specific Relatively short term

Pyrethroids: Permethrin, Betacyfluthrin, Bifenthrin Bifenthrin Pyrethroid

Toxic to lower vertebrates Strongly binds to the soil reduced contamination risk

Recommended by WHO for mosquito c. BUT DOES IT WORK? Two formulations: Emulsifiable Concentration, Granular

Bifenthrin - Formulations Granular (Bithor, Brigade, Vigilanti) Can be used against all stages Directions for use: Applications should be made in the spring to control larvae and nymphs that reside in the soil and leaf litter Application:

Hand, fertilizer spreaders, backpack, aerial WE WANT YOUR TICKS!

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