Modern Chemistry

Modern Chemistry

Compound Formula & Naming Chapter 5 CCl4 MgCl2 Guess the name of each of the above compounds based on the formulas written. What kind of information can you discern from

the formulas? Guess which of the compounds represented is covalent and which is ionic. Chemical formulas form the basis of the language of chemistry and reveal much information about the substances they represent. A chemical formula indicates the relative number of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound.

example: octane C8H18 Carbons = 8 Hydrogens = 18 example: aluminum sulfate Al (SO ) 2 4 3 Parentheses surround the polyatomic ion to identify it as a unit. The subscript 3 refers to

the unit. Note also that there is no subscript for sulfur: the subscript is understood to be 1. Monatomic Ions Many main-group elements can lose or gain electrons to form ions. Ions formed from a single atom are known as monatomic ions. example: nitrogen gains three electrons to form N3

ions. Some main-group elements tend to form covalent bonds instead of forming ions. examples: carbon and silicon Naming Monatomic Ions Monatomic cations are identified by the elements name. examples: K+ is called the potassium cation

Mg2+ is called the magnesium cation For monatomic anions, the ending of the elements name is dropped, and the ending -ide is added to the root name. examples: F is called the fluoride anion N3 is called the nitride anion Binary compounds Compounds composed of two elements are binary compounds.

In a binary ionic compound: positive charges = negative charges The formula for a binary ionic compound can be written cation 1st , anion 2nd . example: magnesium bromide Ions combined: Mg2+, Br, Br Chemical formula: MgBr2 Example

Aluminum Chloride +3 Al Cl -1 AlCl3 Example

Sodium Sulfide +1 Na S -2 Na2S Example

Magnesium Oxide +2 Mg O -2 MgO Sample Problem

Write the formulas for the binary ionic compounds formed between the following elements: a. iodine and zinc b. zinc and sulfur Polyatomic Ions Many common polyatomic ions are oxyanions polyatomic ions that contain oxygen. Examples:

PO4, SO4, NO2 Polyatomic Ions (cont.) Some elements can combine with oxygen to form more than one type of oxyanion. example: nitrogen NO3NO2nitrate nitrite

The name of the ion with the greater number of oxygen atoms ends in -ate. The smaller number of oxygen atoms ends in -ite. Example Magnesium Sulfate +2 -2

Mg SO4 -ate and -ite endings are polyatomics MgSO4 Example Aluminum Nitrite

+3 -1 Al NO2 Al(NO2)3 Example Calcium Hydroxide +2

-1 Ca OH Ca(OH)2 Example Iron (III) Oxide +3

-2 Fe O Fe2O3 Sample Problem Write the formula for tin(IV) sulfate. Example

Ba3N2 barium nitride Example Na3PO4 sodium phosphate Example

FeCl3 Which iron is it? Iron (III) Chloride Iron (II) Fe+2 Iron (III) Fe+3 Example

CuO Which copper is it? Copper (II) ( ) Oxide Copper (I) Cu+1 Copper (II) Cu+2

Example Cu3PO4 Which copper is it? Copper ((I ) Phosphate Copper (I) Cu+1 Copper (II) Cu+2

Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Molecular compounds are composed of individual covalently bonded units. Naming molecular compounds is based on the use of prefixes. examples: CCl4 carbon tetrachloride CO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide

Prefixes 1 mono 2 di 3 tri 4 tetra 5 penta 6 hexa 7 hepta

8 octa 9 nona 10 - deca Naming (cont.) Rule Use prefixes to tell how many of each atom; 1st atom name from periodic table, 2nd element gets ide ending Exception If only 1 of first atom, NO mono-

Prefixes Example Dichlorine heptabromide Cl2 Br7 Example Sulfur trioxide

SO3 Note: no mono when only one of first element Sample Problem a. Give the name for As2O5. b. Write the formula for oxygen difluoride. Example

F3P4 trifluorine tetraphosphide Example CO2 carbon dioxide Example

CO carbon monoxide Warm-UP

Carbon disulfide Sodium chromate Trisulfur heptabromide CuO PCl3 Nickel (II) nitride Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction is the process by

which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. Evidence of a Chemical Reaction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Evolution of heat/light Evolution of a gas Formation of a precipitate Color change Odor produced All Chemical Reactions Have two parts: 1. Reactant(s) what you start with

2. Product(s) what you end up with Reactant(s) Product(s) The following chemical equation shows that the reactant ammonium dichromate yields the products nitrogen, chromium(III) oxide, and water. (NH4)2Cr2O7(s) N2(g) + Cr2O3(s) + 4H2O(g)

Common symbols Separates reactant(s) from product(s) (s) Solid (l) Liquid (g) Gas (aq) Aqueous -substance is in solution dissolved in water 5 Types of Reactions

1. Synthesis: A + B AB 2. Decomposition: AB A + B 3. Single Replacement: AB + C CB + A AB + C AC + B 4. Double Displacment: AB + CD CB + AD 5. Combustion: CXHY + O2 CO2 + H2O CxHyOz Reaction types examples 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Na + Cl2 NaCl MgO + Na Na2O+ Mg MgSO4 + PbCl4 Pb(SO4)2 + MgCl2 C2H5 + O2 CO2 + H2O

KClO3 KCl + O2 Li + Cu(NO3)2 Cu + LiNO3 Describing Reactions Fe(s) + O2(g) Fe2O3(s) Must use proper name! Solid iron plus oxygen gas yields iron (III) oxide

Question: Why is oxygen O2, not O? O2 is DIATOMIC: an atom that exists only as a molecule (2 of same atom paired) when alone Br2I2N2Cl2H2O2F2 Cont. Aluminum plus copper (II) fluoride yields copper plus aluminum fluoride Al + CuF2 Cu + AlF3

Sodium plus oxygen yields sodium oxide Na + O2 Na2O ALL formulas must be written properly! Use ion sheet if needed 1. Synthesis (E + E C) Synthesis = put together

Examples: Mg + N _______ Mg3N2 2 Magnesium nitride Al AlCl3 + Cl2 ________

Check charges! Aluminum chloride Sodium added to oxygen yields Na2O Na + O2 _______ Sodium oxide

Try these synthesis reactions: Li + Cl2 LiCl Al + S8 Al2S3 Barium added to oxygen yields Ba + O2 BaO 2. Decomposition (C

E + E) Decompose to break apart Br2I2N2Cl2H2O2F2 Usually requires energy electricity Ex. NaCl Na + Cl2

Ex. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 AlCl3 ___ ___ Al + Cl 2 LiBr ___ Br2 Li + ____ O2

Al2O3 _____ Al + ____ Try these decomposition reactions: Na3N ZnS Magnesium oxide decomposes into 3. Single Replacement (E + C E + C) One

element replaces another Na + MgCl (s) 2(aq) Mg(s) + NaCl(aq) F 2 + LiCl LiF + Cl2

SR Rxns, cont. Metals will replace other metals (and they can also replace hydrogen) MUST K N check Al 3 (aq)

K(s) + AlN(aq) _____ + ______ (s) charges Potassium nitride H2 (g) Zn(s) + HCl(aq) __

Cu Cu(NO3)2 + Li ___ ZnCl2 (aq) +Zinc______ chloride LiNO3 +Lithium ______ nitrate

Try these SR reactions Na + AgNO3 Ag + NaNO3 Aluminum phosphate plus cesium yields AlPO4 + Cs Al + Cs3PO4 *Not all SR reactions work* Activity Series Used to tell if single replacement reactions work

Elements can replace elements below them on the list Na + MgCl2 Cu + LiBr AgNO3 + K Nonmetals can also replace each other CuCl2 + I2 KI + Cl2

Na3N + Br2 4. Double Displacment (C + C C + C) AB + CD CB + AD Both are (aq) One must be a ppt, liquid, or gas KNO3 PbI2 KI + Pb(NO3)2 ________

Pb+2 I-1 + _________ K+1 NO3-1 H2S FeCl2 FeS + HCl ______ +1 -2 + _____ H S Fe+2 Cl-1 Try these DD reactions

HCl + NaOH NaCl + Ba(NO3)2 CaCl2 + Fe(NO2)2 Aluminum chloride plus sodium sulfate yields Driving Force Not all DD reactions work In order for them to work, one of the products MUST be: 1. gas

2. liquid (NOT solution) 3. solid 5. Combustion CXHY + O2 CO2 + H2O CxHyOz C4H10 + O2 CO2 + H2O CH5OH + O2 CO2 + H2O Always add oxygen

Always produce CO2 and H2O Try these combustion reactions C8H18 + CH3OH + CO2 +

+ H2O All reaction types Br +K H O 2

Zn + H SO 2 4 HgO KBr + Cl 2 AgNO + NaCl 3 Mg(OH) + H SO 2

2 3 2

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