Modeling Vegetation Dynamics with LPJ-GUESS K A T I E I R E L A N D , A N D Y H A N S E N, A N D B E N P O U LT E R Stand to Global Scale Modeling Approaches Stand-scale models Gap (i.e., ZELIG ) Growth-Yield (i.e. FVS) Landscape models Mechanistic (FireBGCv2) Deterministic (SIMMPLE) Global Models DGVMS (MAPSS) Need for Management at Large Spatial Scales Fire Insects
Disease Climate change Land-use change Need ecosystem-scale science, management Hansen et al. 2011. Bioscience 61:363373 What do we mean by ecosystem-scale? Cross management boundaries Ecological flows Crucial habitat
Effective size Human edge effects Range of sizes ~5500 143,000 km2 contiguous habitat Hansen et al. 2011. Bioscience 61:363373 Stand to Global Scale Modeling Approaches Stand-scale models Gap (i.e., ZELIG ) Growth-Yield (i.e. FVS) Landscape models Mechanistic (FireBGCv2) Deterministic
(SIMMPLE) Ecosystem-scale models LPJ-GUESS Global Models DGVMS (MAPSS) Desired Model Characteristics For modeling vegetation dynamics at greater ecosystem scales: Capable of simulating individual species/communities Links climate with ecosystem processes Simulates disturbance Large spatial scale Ex. Yellowstone & Grand Teton Ecosystem ~42,500 km 2 LPJ-GUESS Overview Inputs LPJ-GUESS
Comparisons: LPJ-GUESS, BIOME-BGC, FireBGCv2 BIOME-BGC FireBGCv2 LPJ-GUESS Spatial Scale Stand to global Landscape Stand to global Vegetation Representation Biomes (static) Individual tree
(dynamic) PFTs or species cohorts (dynamic) Input Variables Daily climate, Daily climate, ecophysiological site variables, parameters ecophysiological parameters Monthly climate, soil texture, ecophysiological parameters Output Variables
C, N, and H2O fluxes C, N, H2O, vegetation, fire C, H2O fluxes, vegetation, fire Disturbance Fire Fire, insects, disease Fire Spatially interactive No
Yes No LPJ-GUESS & PNV Shifts in Europe By 2085: NCAR-PCM: 31% in different PNV HadCM3: 42% in different PNV Forest replaces tundra Broad-leaved temperate forest expands northward Mediterranean forest shifts to shrubland Hickler et al. 2012 Global Ecology & Biogeography 21: 50-63 LPJ-GUESS for Ecosystem-scale
Modeling? Pros Cons Capable of Lack of spatial simulating individual species Species dynamic Large-scale applications Links climate to vegetation change interactions Dispersal Disturbance
Parameters for North American tree species Stochastic establishment/mortality Computationally intensive
Define reciprocal activation. Figure 13.20 The crossed-extensor reflex. What other term(s) is the crossed extensor reflex also referred to as? What is the sensory organ(s)? What is the purpose of this reflex? Label and describe how this reflex works.
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Those with material resources: money, space, etc. Institutions (libraries, schools, houses of worship…) that can be resources. Organizations whose mission is to work for a better community. Official government support along with legal and regulatory powers. human resources—skills and work...
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