Mobile Communications - Marmara Üniversitesi

Mobile Communications - Marmara Üniversitesi

Mobile Communications Chapter 4: Wireless Telecommunication Systems Market GSM UMTS/IMT-2000 LTE 4.1 Mobile phone subscribers worldwide approx. 1.7 bn 1600 2011: >4.8 bn! 1400 Subscribers [million] 1200 GSM total 1000 TDMA total CDMA total PDC total 800 Analogue total W-CDMA 600 Total wireless Prediction (1998)

400 200 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 year CT0/1 AMPS NMT CT2 IS-136 TDMA D-AMPS GSM PDC TDMA FDMA

Development of mobile telecommunication systems IMT-FT DECT EDGE GPRS LTE LTE 3.9G 4G advanced IMT-SC IS-136HS UWC-136 IMT-DS UTRA FDD / W-CDMA HSPA IMT-TC CDMA UTRA TDD / TD-CDMA IMT-TC TD-SCDMA 1G IS-95 cdmaOne cdma2000 1X

2G 2.5G IMT-MC cdma2000 1X EV-DO 1X EV-DV (3X) 3G Some press news 16th April 2008: The GSMA, the global trade group for the mobile industry, today announced that total connections to GSM mobile communications networks have now passed the 3 Billion mark globally. The third billion landmark has been reached just four years after the GSM industry surpassed its first billion, and just two years from the second billionth connection. The 3 Billion landmark has been surpassed just 17 years after the first GSM network launch in 1991. Today more than 700 mobile operators across 218 countries and territories of the world are adding new connections at the rate of 15 per second, or 1.3 million per day. 11 February 2009: The GSMA today announced that the mobile world has celebrated its four billionth connection, according to Wireless Intelligence, the GSMAs market intelligence unit. This milestone underscores the continued strong growth of the mobile industry and puts the global market on the path to reach a staggering six billion connections by 2013. By 2014 3.4bn people will have broadband, 80% mobile! How does it work?

How can the system locate a user? Why dont all phones ring at the same time? What happens if two users talk simultaneously? Why dont I get the bill from my neighbor? Why can an Australian use her phone in Berlin? Why cant I simply overhear the neighbors communication? How secure is the mobile phone system? What are the key components of the mobile phone network? GSM: Overview GSM formerly: Groupe Spciale Mobile (founded 1982) now: Global System for Mobile Communication Pan-European standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute) simultaneous introduction of essential services in three phases (1991, 1994, 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations (Germany: D1 and D2) seamless roaming within Europe possible Today many providers all over the world use GSM (219 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, America) more than 4,2 billion subscribers in more than 700 networks more than 75% of all digital mobile phones use GSM over 29 billion SMS in Germany in 2008, (> 10% of the revenues for many operators) [be aware: these are only rough numbers] See e.g. www.gsmworld.com/newsroom/market-data/index.htm Performance characteristics of GSM (wrt. analog sys.)

Communication mobile, wireless communication; support for voice and data services Total mobility international access, chip-card enables use of access points of different providers Worldwide connectivity one number, the network handles localization High capacity better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell High transmission quality high audio quality and reliability for wireless, uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains) Security functions access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN Disadvantages of GSM There is no perfect system!! no end-to-end encryption of user data no full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user, no transparent B-channel reduced concentration while driving electromagnetic radiation abuse of private data possible roaming profiles accessible high complexity of the system several incompatibilities within the GSM standards GSM: Mobile Services

GSM offers several types of connections voice connections, data connections, short message service multi-service options (combination of basic services) Three service domains Bearer Services Telematic Services Supplementary Services bearer services MS TE MT R, S GSM-PLMN Um transit network (PSTN, ISDN) tele services source/ destination network TE (U, S, R) Bearer Services Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3)

Different data rates for voice and data (original standard) data service (circuit switched) synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s asynchronous: 300 - 1200 bit/s data service (packet switched) synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s asynchronous: 300 - 9600 bit/s Today: data rates of approx. 50 kbit/s possible will be covered later! (even more with new modulation) Tele Services I Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones All these basic services have to obey cellular functions, security measurements etc. Offered services mobile telephony primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3.1 kHz Emergency number common number throughout Europe (112); mandatory for all service providers; free of charge; connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible) Multinumbering several ISDN phone numbers per user possible Tele Services II Additional services Non-Voice-Teleservices group 3 fax voice mailbox (implemented in the fixed network supporting the mobile terminals) electronic mail (MHS, Message Handling System, implemented in the fixed network)

... Short Message Service (SMS) alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal (160 characters) using the signaling channel, thus allowing simultaneous use of basic services and SMS (almost ignored in the beginning now the most successful addon!) Supplementary services Services in addition to the basic services, cannot be offered stand-alone Similar to ISDN services besides lower bandwidth due to the radio link May differ between different service providers, countries and protocol versions Important services identification: forwarding of caller number suppression of number forwarding automatic call-back conferencing with up to 7 participants locking of the mobile terminal (incoming or outgoing calls) ... Architecture of the GSM system GSM is a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) several providers setup mobile networks following the GSM standard within each country components

MS (mobile station) BS (base station) MSC (mobile switching center) LR (location register) subsystems RSS (radio subsystem): covers all radio aspects NSS (network and switching subsystem): call forwarding, handover, switching OSS (operation subsystem): management of the network Ingredients 1: Mobile Phones, PDAs & Co. The visible but smallest part of the network! Ingredients 2: Antennas Still visible cause many discussions Ingredients 3: Infrastructure 1 Base Stations Cabling Microwave links Ingredients 3: Infrastructure 2 Not visible, but comprise the major part of the network (also from an investment point of view)

Management Data bases Switching units Monitoring GSM: overview OMC, EIR, AUC HLR NSS with OSS VLR MSC GMSC VLR fixed network MSC BSC BSC RSS GSM: elements and interfaces radio cell MS BSS MS Um

radio cell MS BTS RSS BTS Abis BSC BSC A MSC NSS MSC VLR signaling VLR GMSC HLR IWF O OSS EIR AUC OMC

ISDN, PSTN PDN GSM: system architecture radio subsystem MS network and switching subsystem MS ISDN PSTN MSC Um BTS fixed partner networks Abis BSC EIR SS7 BTS VLR BTS BTS BSS HLR

BSC A MSC IWF ISDN PSTN PSPDN CSPDN System architecture: radio subsystem radio subsystem MS network and switching subsystem MS (Mobile Station) BSS (Base Station Subsystem): consisting of MS Um BTS Abis BTS Components BSC MSC

BTS (Base Transceiver Station): sender and receiver BSC (Base Station Controller): controlling several transceivers Interfaces A BTS BTS BSS BSC MSC Um : radio interface Abis : standardized, open interface with 16 kbit/s user channels A: standardized, open interface with 64 kbit/s user channels System architecture: network and switching subsystem network subsystem fixed partner networks ISDN PSTN MSC

Components MSC (Mobile Services Switching SS7 EIR HLR VLR MSC IWF ISDN PSTN PSPDN CSPDN Center): IWF (Interworking Functions) ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) PSPDN (Packet Switched Public Data Net.) CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Net.) Databases HLR (Home Location Register) VLR (Visitor Location Register)

EIR (Equipment Identity Register) Radio subsystem The Radio Subsystem (RSS) comprises the cellular mobile network up to the switching centers Components Base Station Subsystem (BSS): Base Transceiver Station (BTS): radio components including sender, receiver, antenna - if directed antennas are used one BTS can cover several cells Base Station Controller (BSC): switching between BTSs, controlling BTSs, managing of network resources, mapping of radio channels (Um) onto terrestrial channels (A interface) BSS = BSC + sum(BTS) + interconnection Mobile Stations (MS) GSM: cellular network segmentation of the area into cells possible radio coverage of the cell cell idealized shape of the cell use of several carrier frequencies not the same frequency in adjoining cells cell sizes vary from some 100 m up to 35 km depending on user density, geography, transceiver power etc. hexagonal shape of cells is idealized (cells overlap, shapes depend on geography) if a mobile user changes cells handover of the connection to the neighbor cell

GSM frequency bands (examples) Type Channels Uplink [MHz] Downlink [MHz] GSM 850 128-251 824-849 869-894 GSM 900 0-124, 9551023 876-915 921-960 890-915 880-915 935-960 925-960 classical extended 124 channels +49 channels GSM 1800

512-885 1710-1785 1805-1880 GSM 1900 512-810 1850-1910 1930-1990 GSM-R 955-1024, 0124 876-915 921-960 876-880 921-925 exclusive 69 channels - Additionally: GSM 400 (also named GSM 450 or GSM 480 at 450-458/460-468 or 479-486/489-496 MHz) Please note: frequency ranges may vary depending on the country! Channels at the lower/upper edge of a frequency band are typically not used Example coverage of GSM networks

(www.gsmworld.com) T-Mobile (GSM-900/1800) Germany AT&T (GSM-850/1900) USA O2 (GSM-1800) Germany Vodacom (GSM-900) South Africa Base Transceiver Station and Base Station Controller Tasks of a BSS are distributed over BSC and BTS BTS comprises radio specific functions BSC is the switching center for radio channels Functions Management of radio channels Frequency hopping (FH) Management of terrestrial channels Mapping of terrestrial onto radio channels Channel coding and decoding Rate adaptation Encryption and decryption Paging Uplink signal measurements Traffic measurement Authentication Location registry, location update Handover management BTS X X X X X X

BSC X X X X X X X X X X Mobile station Terminal for the use of GSM services A mobile station (MS) comprises several functional groups MT (Mobile Terminal): offers common functions used by all services the MS offers corresponds to the network termination (NT) of an ISDN access end-point of the radio interface (Um) TA (Terminal Adapter): terminal adaptation, hides radio specific characteristics TE (Terminal Equipment): peripheral device of the MS, offers services to a user does not contain GSM specific functions SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): personalization of the mobile terminal, stores user parameters TE TA R MT S

Um Network and switching subsystem NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control Components Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay) Home Location Register (HLR) central master database containing user data, permanent and semi-permanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs) Visitor Location Register (VLR) local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR Mobile Services Switching Center The MSC (mobile services switching center) plays a central role in GSM switching functions additional functions for mobility support management of network resources interworking functions via Gateway MSC (GMSC) integration of several databases

Functions of a MSC specific functions for paging and call forwarding termination of SS7 (signaling system no. 7) mobility specific signaling location registration and forwarding of location information provision of new services (fax, data calls) support of short message service (SMS) generation and forwarding of accounting and billing information Operation subsystem The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation, management, and maintenance of all GSM subsystems Components Authentication Center (AUC) generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system Equipment Identity Register (EIR) registers GSM mobile stations and user rights stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)

different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem GSM - TDMA/FDMA qu en c y 935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) downlink fre 890-915 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) uplink higher GSM frame structures time GSM TDMA frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 4.615 ms GSM time-slot (normal burst) guard space tail 3 bits user data S Training S user data 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits guard tail space 3 546.5 s 577 s GSM hierarchy of frames hyperframe 0 1

2 2045 2046 2047 3 h 28 min 53.76 s ... superframe 0 1 0 2 ... 1 48 ... 49 24 50 6.12 s 25 multiframe 0 1 ... 0

1 24 2 120 ms 25 ... 48 49 50 235.4 ms frame 0 1 ... 6 7 4.615 ms slot burst 577 s

GSM Bandwidth 890-915 MHz Uplink, 935-960 MHz Downlink 25MHz 124 x 200 MHz channels Each channel is a TDMA with burst (slot) period of 15/26ms 8 burst periods 120/26ms One channel One burst period per TDMA frame 26 TDMA frames One multiframe 24 used for traffic, 1 for control, 1 is unused Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) If SACCH doesnt have sufficient capacity, Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) is used by stealing of some bursts. Stealing bits identify weather the -slot carries data or control. 200 kHz = 270.8 kbps/8 slots 34kbps/slot 15/26 ms/slot 270.8*15/26 =156.25 bits/slot 9.6 kbps/user after encryption and FEC overhead. Mobile Terminated Call

1: calling a GSM subscriber 2: forwarding call to GMSC 3: signal call setup to HLR 4, 5: request MSRN from VLR 6: forward responsible calling station MSC to GMSC 7: forward call to current MSC 8, 9: get current status of MS 10, 11: paging of MS 12, 13: MS answers 14, 15: security checks 16, 17: set up connection HLR 4 5 3 6 1 PSTN 2 GMSC 10 7

VLR 8 9 14 15 MSC 10 13 16 10 BSS BSS BSS 11 11 11 11 12 17 MS Mobile Originated Call 1, 2: connection request 3, 4: security check 5-8: check resources (free circuit) 9-10: set up call VLR

3 4 6 PSTN 5 GMSC 7 MSC 8 2 9 MS 1 10 BSS MTC/MOC MS MTC BTS MS MOC BTS paging request channel request channel request

immediate assignment immediate assignment paging response service request authentication request authentication request authentication response authentication response ciphering command ciphering command ciphering complete ciphering complete setup setup call confirmed call confirmed assignment command assignment command assignment complete

assignment complete alerting alerting connect connect connect acknowledge connect acknowledge data/speech exchange data/speech exchange 4 types of handover 1 2 3 4 MS MS MS MS BTS BTS

BTS BTS BSC BSC BSC MSC MSC Handover decision receive level BTSold receive level BTSold HO_MARGIN MS MS BTSold BTSnew Handover procedure MS BTSold BSCold measurement measurement report

result MSC HO decision HO required BSCnew BTSnew HO request resource allocation ch. activation HO command HO command HO command HO request ack ch. activation ack HO access Link establishment clear command clear command clear complete clear complete HO complete HO complete Security in GSM Security services access control/authentication

user SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): secret PIN (personal identification number) SIM network: challenge response method confidentiality voice and signaling encrypted on the wireless link (after successful authentication) anonymity temporary identity TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) newly assigned at each new location update (LUP) encrypted transmission 3 algorithms specified in GSM A3 for authentication (secret, open interface) A5 for encryption (standardized) A8 for key generation (secret, open interface) secret: A3 and A8 available via the Internet network providers can use stronger mechanisms GSM - authentication SIM mobile network Ki RAND 128 bit

AC RAND 128 bit RAND Ki 128 bit 128 bit A3 A3 SIM SRES* 32 bit MSC SRES* =? SRES SRES SRES 32 bit Ki: individual subscriber authentication key 32 bit SRES SRES: signed response

GSM - key generation and encryption MS with SIM mobile network (BTS) Ki AC RAND 128 bit RAND 128 bit RAND 128 bit A8 cipher key BSS Ki 128 bit SIM A8 Kc 64 bit Kc 64 bit data A5

encrypted data SRES data MS A5 Data services in GSM I Data transmission standardized with only 9.6 kbit/s advanced coding allows 14.4 kbit/s not enough for Internet and multimedia applications HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit Switched Data) mainly software update bundling of several time-slots to get higher AIUR (Air Interface User Rate, e.g., 57.6 kbit/s using 4 slots @ 14.4) advantage: ready to use, constant quality, simple disadvantage: channels blocked for voice transmission AIUR [kbit/s] 4.8 9.6 14.4 19.2 28.8 38.4 43.2 57.6 TCH/F4.8 1 2 3 4 TCH/F9.6

TCH/F14.4 1 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 Data services in GSM II GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) packet switching using free slots only if data packets ready to send (e.g., 50 kbit/s using 4 slots temporarily) standardization 1998, introduction 2001 advantage: one step towards UMTS, more flexible disadvantage: more investment needed (new hardware) GPRS network elements GSN (GPRS Support Nodes): GGSN and SGSN GGSN (Gateway GSN) interworking unit between GPRS and PDN (Packet Data Network) SGSN (Serving GSN) supports the MS (location, billing, security) GR (GPRS Register) user addresses GPRS quality of service Reliability class

Lost SDU probability Duplicate SDU probability 1 2 3 10-9 10-4 10-2 10-9 10-5 10-5 Delay class 1 2 3 4 Out of sequence SDU probability 10-9 10-5 10-5 Corrupt SDU probability 10-9 10-6

10-2 SDU size 128 byte SDU size 1024 byte mean 95 percentile mean 95 percentile < 0.5 s < 1.5 s <2s <7s <5s < 25 s < 15 s < 75 s < 50 s < 250 s < 75 s < 375 s unspecified Examples for GPRS device classes Class Receiving slots Sending slots Maximum number of slots 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 3 5 2 2 4 8 4 1 5 10

4 2 5 12 4 4 5 GPRS user data rates in kbit/s Coding scheme 1 slot 2 slots 3 slots 4 slots 5 slots 6 slots 7 slots 8 slots CS-1 9.05 18.1 27.15 36.2 45.25 54.3

63.35 72.4 CS-2 13.4 26.8 40.2 53.6 67 80.4 93.8 107.2 CS-3 15.6 31.2 46.8 62.4 78 93.6 109.2

124.8 CS-4 21.4 42.8 64.2 85.6 107 128.4 149.8 171.2 GPRS architecture and interfaces SGSN Gn BSS MS Um SGSN Gb Gn HLR/ GR

MSC VLR EIR PDN GGSN Gi GPRS protocol architecture MS BSS Um SGSN Gb Gn GGSN apps. IP/X.25 IP/X.25 SNDCP SNDCP LLC RLC

LLC MAC RLC MAC radio radio BSSGP FR GTP UDP/TCP GTP UDP/TCP BSSGP IP IP FR L1/L2 L1/L2 Gi Enhancements of the standard Several DECT Application Profiles in addition to the DECT

specification GAP (Generic Access Profile) standardized by ETSI in 1997 assures interoperability between DECT equipment of different manufacturers (minimal requirements for voice communication) enhanced management capabilities through the fixed network: Cordless Terminal Mobility (CTM) DECT basestation fixed network DECT Common Air Interface DECT Portable Part GAP DECT/GSM Interworking Profile (GIP): connection to GSM ISDN Interworking Profiles (IAP, IIP): connection to ISDN Radio Local Loop Access Profile (RAP): public telephone service CTM Access Profile (CAP): support for user mobility UMTS and IMT-2000 Proposals for IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications) UWC-136, cdma2000, WP-CDMA UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) from ETSI UMTS UTRA (was: UMTS, now: Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) enhancements of GSM

EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution): GSM up to 384 kbit/s CAMEL (Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic) VHE (virtual Home Environment) fits into GMM (Global Multimedia Mobility) initiative from ETSI requirements min. 144 kbit/s rural (goal: 384 kbit/s) min. 384 kbit/s suburban (goal: 512 kbit/s) up to 2 Mbit/s urban Frequencies for IMT-2000 1850 ITU allocation (WRC 1992) 1900 1950 IMT-2000 Europe GSM 1800 China GSM 1800 DE T D CT D UTRA FDD

IMT-2000 2000 2050 MSS MSS T D D MSS cdma2000 MSS PHS W-CDMA Japan North America 1850 1900 1950 2000 2200 IMT-2000 MSS UTRA FDD

MSS IMT-2000 MSS MHz cdma2000 MSS W-CDMA MSS PCS 2100 2150 rsv. 2050 2100 2150 MSS 2200 MHz IMT-2000 family Interface for Internetworking

IMT-2000 Core Network ITU-T GSM (MAP) Initial UMTS (R99 w/ FDD) IMT-DS IMT-2000 Radio Access ITU-R ANSI-41 (IS-634) IP-Network Flexible assignment of Core Network and Radio Access IMT-TC (Direct Spread) (Time Code) UTRA FDD (W-CDMA) 3GPP UTRA TDD (TD-CDMA); TD-SCDMA 3GPP

IMT-MC IMT-SC IMT-FT (Multi Carrier) (Single Carrier) (Freq. Time) cdma2000 UWC-136 (EDGE) UWCC/3GPP DECT 3GPP2 ETSI GSM, UMTS, and LTE Releases Stages (0: feasibility study) 1: service description from a serviceusers point of view 2: logical analysis, breaking the problem down into functional elements and the information flows amongst them 3: concrete implementation of the protocols between physical elements onto which the functional elements have been mapped (4: test specifications)

Note "Release 2000" was used only temporarily and was eventually replaced by "Release 4" and "Release 5" Additional information: www.3gpp.org/releases www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/ S pecReleaseMatrix.htm Rel Spec version number Functional freeze date, indicative only Rel-11 11.x.y Stage 1 freeze September 2011? Stage 2 freeze March 2012? Stage 3 freeze September 2012? Rel-10 10.x.y Stage 1 freeze March 2010 Stage 2 freeze September 2010 Stage 3 freeze March 2011 Rel-9 9.x.y

Stage 1 freeze December 2008 Stage 2 freeze June 2009 Stage 3 freeze December 2009 Rel-8 8.x.y Stage 1 freeze March 2008 Stage 2 freeze June 2008 Stage 3 freeze December 2008 Rel-7 7.x.y Stage 1 freeze September 2005 Stage 2 freeze September 2006 Stage 3 freeze December 2007 Rel-6 6.x.y December 2004 - March 2005 Rel-5 5.x.y March - June 2002 Rel-4 4.x.y March 2001

R00 4.x.y see note 1 below 9.x.y R99 3.x.y March 2000 8.x.y R98 7.x.y early 1999 R97 6.x.y early 1998 R96 5.x.y early 1997 Ph2 4.x.y 1995

Ph1 3.x.y 1992 Licensing Example: UMTS in Germany, 18. August 2000 UTRA-FDD: UTRA-TDD: Uplink 1920-1980 MHz Downlink 2110-2170 MHz duplex spacing 190 MHz 12 channels, each 5 MHz 1900-1920 MHz, 2010-2025 MHz; 5 MHz channels Coverage of the population

25% until 12/2003 50% until 12/2005 Sum: 50.81 billion UMTS architecture (Release 99 used here!) UTRAN (UTRA Network) Cell level mobility Radio Network Subsystem (RNS) Encapsulation of all radio specific tasks UE (User Equipment) CN (Core Network) Inter system handover Location management if there is no dedicated connection between UE and UTRAN Uu UE Iu UTRAN CN UMTS domains and interfaces I Home Network Domain Zu Cu USIM Domain Mobile Equipment Domain

Uu Access Network Domain Iu Serving Network Domain Yu Transit Network Domain Core Network Domain User Equipment Domain Infrastructure Domain User Equipment Domain Assigned to a single user in order to access UMTS services Infrastructure Domain Shared among all users Offers UMTS services to all accepted users UMTS domains and interfaces II Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) Functions for encryption and authentication of users Located on a SIM inserted into a mobile device Mobile Equipment Domain

Functions for radio transmission User interface for establishing/maintaining end-to-end connections Access Network Domain Access network dependent functions Core Network Domain Access network independent functions Serving Network Domain Network currently responsible for communication Home Network Domain Location and access network independent functions Spreading and scrambling of user data Constant chipping rate of 3.84 Mchip/s Different user data rates supported via different spreading factors higher data rate: less chips per bit and vice versa User separation via unique, quasi orthogonal scrambling codes users are not separated via orthogonal spreading codes much simpler management of codes: each station can use the same orthogonal spreading codes precise synchronization not necessary as the scrambling codes stay quasiorthogonal data1 data2 data3

data4 data5 spr. code1 spr. code2 spr. code3 spr. code1 spr. code4 scrambling code1 sender1 scrambling code2 sender2 OSVF coding 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1 ... 1,1,1,1 1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1 1,1

1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1 1 X 1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1 X,-X SF=2n ... 1,1,-1,-1 X,X SF=n 1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1 ... 1,-1,1,-1 1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1 1,-1 1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1 ... 1,-1,-1,1 1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1 SF=1 SF=2 SF=4

SF=8 UMTS FDD frame structure Radio frame 10 ms 0 1 2 ... 12 13 14 Time slot 666.7 s Pilot TFCI FBI TPC uplink DPCCH 2560 chips, 10 bits 666.7 s uplink DPDCH Data 2560 chips, 10*2k bits (k = 0...6)

666.7 s Data1 TPC TFCI Data2 Pilot downlink DPCH DPDCH DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH 2560 chips, 10*2k bits (k = 0...7) Slot structure NOT for user separation but synchronization for periodic functions! W-CDMA 1920-1980 MHz uplink 2110-2170 MHz downlink chipping rate: 3.840 Mchip/s soft handover QPSK complex power control (1500 power control cycles/s) spreading: UL: 4-256; DL:4-512 FBI: Feedback Information TPC: Transmit Power Control TFCI: Transport Format Combination Indicator DPCCH: Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPDCH: Dedicated Physical Data Channel DPCH: Dedicated Physical Channel Typical UTRA-FDD uplink data rates

User data rate [kbit/s] 12.2 (voice) 64 144 384 DPDCH [kbit/s] 60 240 480 960 DPCCH [kbit/s] 15 15 15 15 Spreading 64 16 8

4 UMTS TDD frame structure (burst type 2) Radio frame 10 ms 666.7 s 0 1 2 Time slot Data Midample 1104 chips 256 chips 2560 chips ... Data GP 1104 chips 12 13 14 Traffic burst GP: guard period 96 chips

TD-CDMA 2560 chips per slot spreading: 1-16 symmetric or asymmetric slot assignment to UL/DL (min. 1 per direction) tight synchronization needed simpler power control (100-800 power control cycles/s) UTRAN architecture RNS UE1 Node B Iub RNC: Radio Network Controller RNS: Radio Network Subsystem Iu RNC CN UE2 Node B UTRAN comprises UE3 Iur Node B Node B

Iub RNC Node B RNS several RNSs Node B can support FDD or TDD or both RNC is responsible for handover decisions requiring signaling to the UE Cell offers FDD or TDD UTRAN functions Admission control Congestion control System information broadcasting Radio channel encryption

Handover SRNS moving Radio network configuration Channel quality measurements Macro diversity Radio carrier control Radio resource control Data transmission over the radio interface Outer loop power control (FDD and TDD) Channel coding Access control Core network: protocols VLR MSC GSM-CS backbone RNS GMSC PSTN/ ISDN GGSN PDN (X.25), Internet (IP) HLR RNS Layer 3: IP Layer 2: ATM Layer 1: PDH,

SDH, SONET UTRAN SGSN GPRS backbone (IP) SS 7 CN Core network: architecture BTS Abis BSS BSC Node BTS B VLR Iu MSC GMSC PSTN IuCS AuC EIR HLR GR

Node B Node B Node B Iub RNC RNS SGSN IuPS Gn GGSN Gi CN Core network The Core Network (CN) and thus the Interface Iu, too, are separated into two logical domains: Circuit Switched Domain (CSD) Circuit switched service incl. signaling Resource reservation at connection setup GSM components (MSC, GMSC, VLR) IuCS Packet Switched Domain (PSD)

GPRS components (SGSN, GGSN) IuPS Release 99 uses the GSM/GPRS network and adds a new radio access! Helps to save a lot of money Much faster deployment Not as flexible as newer releases (5, 6, ) UMTS protocol stacks (user plane) UE Uu UTRAN IuCS 3G MSC apps. & protocols Circuit switched RLC MAC AAL2 AAL2 radio radio

ATM ATM UE Packet switched SAR SAR RLC MAC apps. & protocols IP, PPP, PDCP Uu UTRAN 3G SGSN IuPS IP tunnel 3G GGSN IP, PPP,

GTP RLC RLC GTP UDP/IP MAC MAC AAL5 AAL5 L2 L2 radio radio ATM ATM L1 L1 PDCP GTP UDP/IP UDP/IP

Gn GTP UDP/IP Support of mobility: macro diversity Multicasting of data via several physical channels Enables soft handover FDD mode only UE Node B Uplink Node B RNC CN simultaneous reception of UE data at several Node Bs Reconstruction of data at Node B, SRNC or DRNC Downlink Simultaneous transmission of data via different cells Different spreading codes in different cells Support of mobility: handover From and to other systems (e.g., UMTS to GSM) This is a must as UMTS coverage will be poor in the beginning

RNS controlling the connection is called SRNS (Serving RNS) RNS offering additional resources (e.g., for soft handover) is called Drift RNS (DRNS) End-to-end connections between UE and CN only via Iu at the SRNS Change of SRNS requires change of Iu Initiated by the SRNS Controlled by the RNC and CN Node B UE Node B Iub Iub CN SRNC Iur DRNC Iu Example handover types in UMTS/GSM UE1 Node B1 UE2 UE3 UE4

RNC1 3G MSC1 Iu Node B2 Iur Iub Node B3 RNC2 3G MSC2 BTS BSC 2G MSC3 Abis A Breathing Cells GSM Mobile device gets exclusive signal from the base station Number of devices in a cell does not influence cell size UMTS Cell size is closely correlated to the cell capacity Signal-to-nose ratio determines cell capacity Noise is generated by interference from other cells other users of the same cell

Interference increases noise level Devices at the edge of a cell cannot further increase their output power (max. power limit) and thus drop out of the cell no more communication possible Limitation of the max. number of users within a cell required Cell breathing complicates network planning Breathing Cells: Example UMTS services (originally) Data transmission service profiles Service Profile High Interactive MM High MM Bandwidth Transport mode 128 kbit/s Circuit switched 2 Mbit/s Packet switched Medium MM 384 kbit/s Circuit switched Switched Data 14.4 kbit/s Circuit switched Simple Messaging 14.4 kbit/s Packet switched Voice Bidirectional, video telephone

Low coverage, max. 6 km/h asymmetrical, MM, downloads SMS successor, E-Mail 16 kbit/s Circuit switched Virtual Home Environment (VHE) Enables access to personalized data independent of location, access network, and device Network operators may offer new services without changing the network Service providers may offer services based on components which allow the automatic adaptation to new networks and devices Integration of existing IN services Example 3G Networks: Japan FOMA (Freedom Of Mobile multimedia Access) in Japan Examples for FOMA phones Example 3G networks: Australia cdma2000 1xEV-DO in Melbourne/Australia Examples for 1xEV-DO devices Isle of Man Start of UMTS in Europe as Test UMTS in Monaco UMTS in Europe Orange/UK Vodafone/Germany

Some current GSM enhancements EMS/MMS EMS: 760 characters possible by chaining SMS, animated icons, ring tones, was soon replaced by MMS (or simply skipped) MMS: transmission of images, video clips, audio see WAP 2.0 / chapter 10 not really successful, typically substituted by email with attached multimedia content EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global [was: GSM] Evolution) 8-PSK instead of GMSK, up to 384 kbit/s new modulation and coding schemes for GPRS EGPRS MCS-1 to MCS-4 uses GMSK at rates 8.8/11.2/14.8/17.6 kbit/s MCS-5 to MCS-9 uses 8-PSK at rates 22.4/29.6/44.8/54.4/59.2 kbit/s Some current UMTS enhancements HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) initially up to 10 Mbit/s for the downlink, later > 20 Mbit/s using MIMO- (Multiple Input Multiple Output-) antennas can use 16-QAM instead of QPSK (ideally > 13 Mbit/s) user rates e.g. 3.6 or 7.2 Mbit/s Multi-code (multiple CDMA channels) transmission Shared channel transmission (many users share the codes). Extension to WCDMA which uses dedicated user channels. 2ms Transmission time interval (TTI) Fast physical layer hybrid ARQ (H-ARQ) Packet scheduler moved from the radio network controller (RNC) to Node-B (base station) Some current UMTS enhancements (cont.)

HSUPA (High-Speed Uplink Packet Access) initially up to 5 Mbit/s for the uplink user rates e.g. 1.45 Mbit/s HSPA+ (HSPA Evolution) HSDPA + HUDPA Rel-7/Rel-8/Rel-9/ Downlink 28/42/84/> 100 Mbit/s Uplink 11/23/>23 Mbit/s Up to 64QAM in downlink and 16QAM in uplink in Rel-7 64QAM and MIMO in downlink in Rel-8 Smaller transmission time interval (TTI) of 2ms Fast UL data rate control in the NodeB Improved PHY performance through H-ARQ Dedicated resource allocation for latency sensitive applications Fast Mechanisms to request UL resources Long Term Evolution (LTE) Initiated in 2004 by NTT DoCoMo, focus on enhancing the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) and optimizing 3GPPs radio access architecture Targets: Downlink 100 Mbit/s using 64QAM single antenna, 326.4 Mbps using MIMO

Uplink 50 Mbit/s Scalable channel bandwidths of 1.4, 3.0, 5, 10, 20 MHz X2 Multiple frequency bands: 700 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 Latency < 5ms (RTT<10ms) for IP packets 0-15 km/hr optimized, 15-20 km/h high performance, 120350 km/h supported. Compatibility with other cellular standards. LTE (cont.) 2007: E UTRA progressed from the feasibility study stage to the first issue of approved Technical Specifications 2008: stable for commercial implementation 2009: first public LTE service available (Stockholm and Oslo) 2010: LTE starts in Germany LTE is not 4G sometimes called 3.9G Does not fulfill all requirements for IMT advanced May 2011, Berlin gets LTE Key LTE features Simplified network architecture compared to GSM/UMTS Flat IP-based network replacing the GPRS core, optimized for the IPMultimedia Subsystem (IMS), no more circuit switching Network should be in parts self-organizing Scheme for soft frequency reuse between cells Inner part uses all subbands with less power Outer part uses pre-served subbands with higher power Much higher data throughput supported by multiple antennas Much higher flexibility in terms of spectrum, bandwidth, data rates Much lower RTT good for interactive traffic and gaming Smooth transition from W-CDMA/HSPA, TD-SCDMA and cdma2000 1x EV-DO but completely different radio! Large step towards 4G IMT advanced See www.3gpp.org for all specs, tables, figures etc.! High flexibility E-UTRA (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) Operating bands 700-2700MHz Channel bandwidth 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, or 20 MHz TDD and FDD Modulation QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM Multiple Access OFDMA (DL), SC-FDMA (UL) Peak data rates 300 Mbit/s DL 75 Mbit/s UL Depends on UE category Cell radius From <1km to 100km E-UTRA Operating Band Uplink (UL) operating band BS receive UE transmit FUL_low FUL_high 1920 MHz 1980 MHz 1850 MHz 1910 MHz 1710 MHz 1785 MHz 1710 MHz 1755 MHz 824 MHz 849 MHz 830 MHz 840 MHz 2500 MHz 2570 MHz 880 MHz 915 MHz 1749.9 MHz 1784.9 MHz 1710 MHz 1770 MHz 1427.9 MHz 1447.9 MHz 699 MHz 716 MHz 777 MHz 787 MHz 788 MHz 798 MHz Reserved Reserved 704 MHz 716 MHz 815 MHz 830 MHz 830 MHz 845 MHz 832 MHz 862 MHz 1447.9 MHz 1462.9 MHz 1 2 3 4 5 1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20 21 ... 33 1900 MHz 34 2010 MHz 35 1850 MHz 36 1930 MHz 37 1910 MHz 38 2570 MHz 39 1880 MHz 40 2300 MHz Note 1: Band 6 is not applicable 1920 MHz 2025 MHz 1910 MHz 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 2620 MHz 1920 MHz 2400 MHz Downlink (DL) operating band BS transmit UE receive FDL_low FDL_high

2110 MHz 2170 MHz 1930 MHz 1990 MHz 1805 MHz 1880 MHz 2110 MHz 2155 MHz 869 MHz 894MHz 875 MHz 885 MHz 2620 MHz 2690 MHz 925 MHz 960 MHz 1844.9 MHz 1879.9 MHz 2110 MHz 2170 MHz 1475.9 MHz 1495.9 MHz 729 MHz 746 MHz 746 MHz 756 MHz 758 MHz 768 MHz Reserved Reserved 734 MHz 746 MHz 860 MHz 875 MHz 875 MHz 890 MHz 791 MHz 821 MHz 1495.9 MHz 1510.9 MHz 1900 MHz 2010 MHz 1850 MHz 1930 MHz 1910 MHz 2570 MHz 1880 MHz 2300 MHz

1920 MHz 2025 MHz 1910 MHz 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 2620 MHz 1920 MHz 2400 MHz Duplex Mode FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD

TDD TDD TDD LTE frame structure Radio frame (10 ms) UL 0 1 2 FDD 7 8 9 7 8 9 Subframe (1 ms) DL 0 1 2

... Synchronization is part of subframe 0 and 5 Intercarrier spacing: 15 kHz 0 TDD ... 1 2 UL/DL ... 7 8 9 ... Downlink Pilot Time Slot (data plus pilot signal) Uplink Pilot Time Slot (random access plus pilot signal) Guard Period LTE multiple access Scheduling of UEs in time and frequency (simplified)

f 180 kHz UE1 UE1 UE1 UE1 UE1 UE1 UE2 UE2 UE1 UE1 UE3 UE3 UE3 UE4 UE2 UE4 UE3

UE3 UE4 UE3 UE2 UE2 UE2 UE4 UE1 UE4 UE2 UE1 UE1 UE4 1 ms t LTE architecture UE2 Mobility Management Entity Serving Gateway Packet-data network Gateway Home Subscriber Server Policy and Charging Rules Function

Uu MME eNode B eNode B X2-U/-C X2-U/-C UE1 Uu X2-U/-C eNode B GPRS S10 S3 MME S1-MME S1-MME HSS S6 S11 S4 PCRF

S1-U eNode B X2-U/-C S1-U eNode B E-UTRAN S7 S-GW S5 S8 (roaming) P-GW SGi EPC (Evolved Packet Core) Rx+ Internet, Operators IMT Advanced from www.itu.int Key features of IMT-Advanced a high degree of commonality of functionality worldwide while retaining the flexibility to support a wide range of services and applications in a cost efficient manner;

compatibility of services within IMT and with fixed networks; capability of interworking with other radio access systems; high quality mobile services; user equipment suitable for worldwide use; user-friendly applications, services and equipment; worldwide roaming capability; and, enhanced peak data rates to support advanced services and applications (100 Mbit/s for high and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility were established as targets for research). These features enable IMT-Advanced to address evolving user needs and the capabilities of IMT-Advanced systems are being continuously enhanced in line with user trends and technology developments. LTE advanced GSM UMTS - LTE LTE advanced as candidate for IMT-advanced Worldwide functionality & roaming Compatibility of services Interworking with other radio access systems Enhanced peak data rates to support advanced services and applications (100 Mbit/s for high and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility) 3GPP will be contributing to the ITU-R towards the development of IMT-Advanced via its proposal for LTEAdvanced. Relay Nodes to increase coverage 100 MHz bandwidth (5x LTE with 20 MHz)

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