MLA Format - Weebly

MLA Format - Weebly

MLA Format Source: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (seventh edition) Types of Research Primary research- study of a subject through first-hand investigation Secondary research- examination of studies other researchers have done on the subject The Research Paper

A form of written communication Fully documents facts and opinions of others The research supports your statements; it should not overshadow your own ideas. Selecting a Topic

Varying freedom of choice Consider the time you have to research. Consider the length of the paper. Preliminary research is needed before choosing a topic. Violence in the media-

Examples The effects of cartoon violence on preschool children Topic Selection Give yourself time to think through options. Do not rush this process! Look for a topic that interests you!

Consult research materials. Understand the amount and depth of research needed. Ask your teacher questions! Your Assignment A one-page paper (double-spaced) detailing your topic

Explains the scientific importance of your topic Lists your number one source for your paper with its works cited entry in MLA format. Note: knightcite.com is more reliable than easybib. Evaluating Sources- Authority Authority- anyone can publish on the internet

Look for sources with reputable authors. Is the author listed? Is the author an expert in the field? Did the author research? Is a bibliography (works cited page) included with the article? Can these sources be verified? Evaluating Sources- Authority Does the author care enough to revise his/her work? Check the edition! Is information about the author and

editor(s) available on the website? Does a reputable organization sponsor the site? Is there an advisory board (experts that advise the editors)? Evaluating Sources Are the authors credentials listed?

Is an editorial policy listed? Is the article peer-reviewed? Has it been read and recommended for publication by experts? What is the publication date? Is the information up-to-date? Are the authors sources up-to-date? Evaluating Sources

When judged against your previous reading and understanding of the subject, is the information furnished by the author correct? Is the authors argument presented logically and without bias? Evaluating SourcesScope What is the authors purpose for writing? Does this purpose pertain to your topic?

Notice any stated limitations by the author. Compare each source to other sources. Evaluating Sources- Treatment How does the author deal with facts? i.e. Does he/she round the dates? Objectivity- Is the author biased? Who owns the site?

Style and writing level- Does the author sound like he/she knows what he/she is talking about? Is his/her tone argumentative? Evaluating Sources Information published elsewhere, perhaps in a reputable journal or book? Look at the sources physical properties. Is the sources

professionally published? What is the sources domain name? .com, .org, .gov, .edu? Taking Notes Head notes for each source with a works cited entry. Build your works cited page as you go along!

For quotations, dont forget quotation marks and parenthetical citations [ (Smith 5).] Copy and paste quotations, but do NOT forget quotation marks! Taking Notes For books or long sources, summarize the sources general idea.

Cluster information by topic. For longer papers, you may create a new file for each source. Print out a copy of each source. For books copy the title and copyright pages. Basic Terminology

These three types of note-taking must be accompanied by a parenthetical citation and a works cited entry! Summary- general idea of large amounts of material Paraphrase- detailed notes on specific sentences, restatement of the authors words, short sections of quotations allowable Quotation- Transcribed materialword

for word and comma for commawith QUOTATION MARKS Plagiarism To commit literary theft A writers presenting another persons words, ideas, and/or expressions without giving credit to that person. It is a serious offense and a form of intellectual dishonesty that can lead to course failure or expulsion in college. Consequences

The plagiarist is often viewed as incompetentincapable of developing and expressing their own thoughts and dishonest, willing to deceive others for personal gain. Loss of job Public embarrassment, loss of prestige Consequences for the Student

Failure of the assignment Failure of the course Expulsion Damages to the teachers reputation

Damages to the institutions reputation Reporting Plagiarism Report any accidental plagiarism right away. A lower grade is better than failing a course or being expelled. Information Sharing Easy to share information today

Easy to plagiarize today Beware of buying papers; purchased papers are readily recognizable. Most colleges have programs that can trace internet content and detect plagiarism. 2 Reasons 1. Procrastination

2. Lack of understanding Forms of Plagiarism Most blatant form- submitting a paper written by someone else Using the authors own words without citation Paraphrasing another authors words without citation

Example Original- Some of Dickinsons most powerful poems express her firmly held conviction that life cannot be fully comprehended without an understanding of death. Plagiarism- Emily Dickinson firmly believed that we cannot fully comprehend life unless we also understand death.

Not plagiarism- As Wendy Martin has suggested, Emily Dickinson firmly believed that we cannot fully comprehend life unless we also understand death (625). AND a correlating works cited entry Forms of Plagiarism Taking the authors ideas without citation Citing a secondary source incorrectly Look for the primary source!

Taking a particularly apt phrase without citation Example Original- Everyone uses the word language and everybody these days talks about culture. . . . Languaculture is a reminder, I hope of the necessary connection between its two parts. Plagiarism- At the intersection of language and culture lies a concept that we might call languaculture.

Citation- At the intersection of language and culture lies a concept that Michael Agar has called languaculture (60). AND a works cited entry Forms of Plagiarism Paraphrasing an argument or presenting a line of thinking Example

Original- Humanity faces a quantum leap forward. It faces the deepest social upheaval and creative restructuring of all time. Without clearly recognizing it, we are engaged in building a remarkable civilization from the ground up. This is the meaning of the Third Wave. Until now the human race has undergone two great waves of change, each one largely obliterating earlier cultures or civilizations and replacing them with the ways of life inconceivable to those who came before. The First Wave of changethe agricultural revolution took thousands of years to play itself out. The Second Wavethe rise of industrial civilizationtook a mere hundred years. Today history is even more accelerative, and it is likely that the third Wave will sweep across history and complete itself in a few

decades. Example Plagiarism- There have been two revolutionary periods of change in history: the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution. The agricultural revolution determined the course of history for thousands of years; the industrial civilization lasted about a century. We are now on the threshold of a new period of revolutionary change, but this one may last for only a few decades. Example

Citation- According to Alvin Toffler, there have been two revolutionary periods of change in history: the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution. The agricultural revolution determined the course of history for thousands of years; the industrial civilization lasted about a century. We are now on the threshold of a new period of revolutionary change, but this one may last for only a few decades (10). AND a works cited entry Using common expressions

Using common knowledge Broadly known by your readers Not Plagiarism Widely accepted by scholars Repeated but not cited in several sources Such as basic biographies and dates of a historical event When in doubt, cite! Unintentional Plagiarism

Document everything you borrownot only quotations and paraphrases but also information and ideas. Carry-over from elementary school Writing in a second language, inadvertently copying another authors grammatical structure and expressions Avoiding Plagiarism

Differentiate between your thoughts and others quotations in your notes (different sections, quotation marks). Dont forget quotation marks even in paraphrases and summaries. Perhaps include only quotations in your notes document Avoiding Plagiarism

Perhaps write your paper first and then add your quotations, paraphrases, and summaries with parenthetical citations Beware of subconsciously using the authors wording, logic, or style especially if you internalize information well! Annotated Bibliography Locate at least three sources.

You must have at least six sources and four of these sources must have been published in either a journal, newspaper, or another type of periodical. Online articles count towards your four if they were also published outside the internet. Annotated Bibliography Copy or print your three sources and turn in a copy to me.

If the source is more than ten pages long, you may email me a pdf of the source. For books, copy the title and copyright pages to turn in. You must read your sources in their entirety. Annotated Bibliography

1 inch margins, double-spaced MLA heading (Name, Miss MacQuarrie, English 12, 23 September 2013 in the top left-hand corner) Must be entitled Annotated Bibliography or Annotated Works Consulted (title centered on page) Annotated Bibliography

MLA formatted works consulted entries (knightcite.com) Hanging indent, alphabetized 5 paragraph summary of the source that highlights its suitability as a source for your paper Due 9/23/13

Another 3 source annotated bibliography is due on 10/7/13 The Thesis Statement One arguable statement about a major point Thesis Statements Due to the political climate of the early 1900s, many of Booker T. Washingtons policies were based primarily on pragmatism.

For beauty and for grandeur, few sights are more impressive than the Grand Canyon. In The Scarlet Letter, the character Pearl represents mans conscience. Thesis Statements Jefferson Davis was the president of the Confederacy.

Far from wholesome, todays childrens videos often glorify bad behavior, showing children who are disobedient, disrespectful, and irresponsible.. A Thesis for a Persuasive Paper Gather ideas Topic: Euthanasia Think about all sides of the topic.

The Other Side Your Side A person has a right to All life is precious choose to end his/her life Frees a person from pain Painkillers, other options Too old- cluttering up the Man is created in Gods world image A Thesis for a Persuasive Paper

Research question: Should euthanasia be practiced? (Note the yes or no answer.) Your assertion (your position on the debatable topic): Euthanasia should not be practiced. Physicians should not practice euthanasia. A Thesis for a Persuasive Paper Your concession (although clause which introduces your thesis, concedes in some legitimate way to a valid point

from the other side of the argument): Although certain people believe euthanasia ends suffering Although euthanasia ends suffering A Thesis for a Persuasive Paper Put it together (concession clause, assertion): Although euthanasia ends suffering, physicians should not practice euthanasia. Restatement of Thesis for a Persuasive Paper

Even though + concession (stated differently), + assertion (stated differently) Restatement of Thesis (first sentence of the conclusion): Even though mercy-killing terminates pain, doctors should not terminate life under the guise of euthanasia. Thesis (last sentence of the introduction): Although euthanasia ends suffering, physicians should not practice euthanasia. Examples Although many accuse postmodernists of killing the novel, Salman Rushdie in his novel Haroun and the Sea of Stories utilizes postmodern techniques to

highlight the imaginations role in storytelling and life. Even though Rushdie employs newer literary techniques to respond to this question, he nonetheless maintains the literary significance of the imagination. Examples Although the facts of the original Prometheus myth remain the same in the works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lord Byron, and Mary Shelley, one cannot help but notice that these Romantic authors changed the myths original themes to

better reflect their own individual Romantic philosophies and thereby contributed to the overall themes of Romanticism that influence society today. In conclusion, Percy Bysshe Shelleys, Lord Byrons, and Mary Shelleys Promethean works revamped the Prometheus myths with unique Romantic themes and launched the story on a new path toward prominence which can be seen still today. Examples Culturally-influenced adolescent

literature emphasized the changes in post-World War II society instead of lauding the traditional lifestyle and, thus, popularized a new way of life for Americans. Together, in the post-World War II American society, the specific and general effects of adolescent literature popularized a new approach to life that differed drastically from the previous lifestyles. Examples

Although the surprise ending of The Thief displays masterful writing, the character development of the novels protagonist truly gives The Thief its greatness. In conclusion, even though the surprise ending of The Thief demonstrates Turners deftness in writing, the consistency, complexity, and individuality of Gens characterization bestow The Thief with excellence. Examples

Although many people try to discredit the historical event of the flood, evidence for the Genesis flood has stood firm against the onslaught of these skeptics and stands as a stark reminder that God and His Word are infallible. Even though Your Turn Although many students would rather do something they enjoy rather than

doing homework, Even though MLA Basic Guidelines 1 inch margins, bottom margin may have to be set at . 8 in. Last name .5 inch from top, right-hand corner

Page number in the top right-hand corner after last name MLA heading (Name, teachers name, course name, date) Title centered on page MLA Basic Guidelines Double-spaced, dont forget to check the box dont add

space between paragraphs MLA Basic Guidelines Correct outline and number with i. Your first page of the paper should be 1. Staple your paper in the top left-hand corner.

Turn off Widow/Orphan control. 12 point, Times New Roman font Your Paper The paper must be at least seven pages. The seventh page may be your works cited page. Your printed sources must be submitted

with your paper with any referenced sections highlighted and numbered in pencil. You must use your six sources. Four of your sources must have been published in print (not just online). You must have a minimum of eight parenthetical citations. Your paper

Your thesis statement must be the last sentence of your introduction. Your restatement of thesis must be the first sentence of your conclusion. Each paragraph must begin with a topic sentence and end with a concluding sentence. Your Paper

Do not begin or end a paragraph with a quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Exception: You may begin your paper with a fascinating quotation. Each paragraph must have at least three sentences, and five sentences is preferred. Your Works Cited Page

Title centered on page (Works Cited) Hanging indent, second line indented by .5 inch Double-spaced Alphabetize At least six entries

Sources numbered in pencil Basic Writing Guidelines Use spell check. Check for serious errors (pronounantecedent disagreement, subjectverb disagreement, misspelling, fused sentence, fragment, comma splice)! Do not use first person (I, me, my,

mine, we, us, our, ours). Do not use second person (you, your, yours), including understood yous. Basic Writing Guidelines Avoid beginning sentences with expletive constructions (There + verb, Here + verb, It + verb). Introduce quotes where possible with the authors name and/or the original

works title. Watch for redundancies (whether or not). Use vivid active verbs. Avoid be verbs. Quotations, Paraphrases, Summaries Must have around them and a parenthetical citation.

(Smith 5-6.) If the source does not have an author, cite by the first aspect of the works cited entry (Heavy) If the source does not have page numbers but does have numbered paragraphs, cite like the following (Smith par. 4). or (Smith pars. 4-5). Quotations, Paraphrases, Summaries

If a source does not have paragraph numbers or page numbers, simply cite with authors last name (first choice) or title of work (second choice). (Smith). (Heavy). If the source was previously cited directly before, you may cite with just a page number (6). If the authors name is in the text, you may cite with just a page number (6).

Quotations, Paraphrases, Summaries For quotations that are more than four lines long, indent by 1 inch (2 tabs); do not include ; and put the period before the parenthetical citation. All quotations, paraphrases, and summaries need a parenthetical citation that goes with a works cited entry and a copied source.

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