NeutronMirror-Neutron Oscillations Exploring new avenues for Dark Matter searches Ben Rybolt University of Tennessee Leah Broussard Oak Ridge National Laboratory on behalf of N-N Collaboration March 23-25, 2017 U.S. Cosmic Visions: New Ideas in Dark Matter 1 History of Mirror Matter Theory Left-Right symmetry can be restored in nature Lee&Yang (1956) Mirror fermions can not have common E-M, Weak and Strong Interactions but only common Gravity
Kobzarev, Okun, Pomeranchuk (1966) MM as a viable candidate for DM if T/T <<1T <<1 Berezhiani, Comelli, Vilante (2001) Mirror Dark Matter: cosmology, galaxy structure and direct detection Foot (2014) Neutron Mirror-Neutron Oscillation Berezhiani (2006-2014) Review: Mirror particles and mirror matter: 50 years of speculations and search. by L.B. Okun, (Moscow, ITEP), 2006, http:/T <<1/T <<1arxiv.org/T <<1abs/T <<1hep-ph/T <<10606202 (contains all references before 2006) 2 Features of Dark Matter within Mirror Matter Paradigm Rich Dark Sector MM can explain part or whole of Dark Matter MM is self-interacting, collision-less, long-lived
Spectrum of particles mass (like in Standard Model) =SM+SM+mix New physics in mix MM and OM cosmology not equivalent T/T << 1: > MM abundance of He is higher than H Mirror stars are older than ordinary stars MM predicts small scale structure of DM SM SM 3 Portals to the mirror world
mix All neutrals: (a) Neutrinos (b) Neutrons (c) Photons + Heavy neutral messenger particles 4 Neutron-Mirror Neutron Oscillation Hamiltonian of free neutron in the presence of a magnetic field Probability to oscillate from neutron to mirror neutron. Berezhiani, Bento Phys.Rev.Lett. 96 (2006) 081801
, and t is determined by neutron velocity and free path length. are unknown 5 Resonance occurs when and is maximized when Probability of oscillation grows with t2 2 2 = ( ) + Effect of misalignment of B and B Neutrons/MWs
Example: , B = 110 mG 4x x 6 Controversial Results of two UCN experiments (see PDG) 1. Experiment: Serebrov et al., Analysis: Berezhiani et al. 5.2 effect consistent with and (90 120) mG Measured asymmetry ~ (71.4)104 (~5) 2. Experiment and Analysis: Altarev et al. no effect at 95% CL. >12 s for (0
125) mG Best Fit Parameters : 7 Resolve controversy using an inexpensive neutron beam experiment Disappearance Mode Oscillation signal is a disappearance of neutrons at detector as function of B-Field Neutron source B-Field Control Flux Monitor Neutron Detector
Regeneration Mode Neutron source B-Field Control Flux Monitor Absorber Oscillation signal is an increase in neutrons at detector as function of B-Field B-Field Control Neutron Detector Regeneration and Disappearance Modes can be run concurrently and can be run parasitically with other cold neutron experiments 8
Requirements for Mirror-Neutron Oscillation Experiment Neutron Source with free flight path > 20 m only a few available in US Magnetic Field control - Helmholtz coils or cos(theta) coil Neutron Absorber Neutron Neutron Detectors: Disappearance and flux monitor, 3He current mode detector for disappearance 3He counting mode for regeneration Source Mirror Neutrons per second Regeneration from Mirror State arXiv:1703.06735
60 m BL14A not used HFIR CG2 10 Search for Mirror Neutrons at HFIR Existing instrument GP-SANS well suited: Long & large area guides, shielded large area detector, spacious Improvements required are modest Minimal impact on SANS research program 100% detector and beamstop: Only mirror neutrons can pass Cold neutron source Disappearance region Control of B field
to turn on oscillation Regeneration region 11 Preliminary scan ~ 20 mG nonuniformity + some hot spots Desired uniformity ~ few mG very reasonable with B control coils + shielding Guide upgrade in 2018: include considerations for B field uniformity/control Developing prototype mapping/control systems (m)
HFIR B field control 12 HFIR Background Regeneration sensitivity depends on Signal : Background Goal 0.05 cps 1mx1m 3He position sensitive detector1 ~5 mm position resolution Measured background with minimal shielding: ~2 cps Goal: 0.05 cps with further shielding, position cuts Measurements with addl shielding after detector upgrade later this spring 1
K. D. Berry et al, NIMA 693 (2012) 179 13 Disappearance Detector Require 10-6 level or better monitoring for neutron flux Use detector provided by n-3He experiment n+3Het+p Flux monitoring should be statistics limited 14 Expected sensitivity @ HFIR Neutron flux ~ 109 n/s1 Phase 1: Disappearance 2 years R&D/implementation
Limit of > 15 s (2 ) in 2 ) in 2 weeks (with statistics-limited monitor) Phase 2: Regeneration 1 year R&D/implementation (req. coordination with BES) Limit of > 15 s (2 ) in 2 ) in 2 weeks (with 0.05 cps bkgd) Project funds < $0.5M L. Crow et al, NIMA 634 (2011) S71 1 Simulated positive signal at = 10 s, 14 days beam time, 10 mG step size (0.05 Hz bkgd, stats-limited n detectors) 15 Conclusion
Mirror Matter is a viable candidate for Dark Matter with testable predictions in n-n oscillations. New search using GP-SANS: small, low cost, short beamtime, large potential impact Controversy in UCN storage experiments will be resolved Pursuing ORNL partial support through LDRD program Stepping stone to future parasitic experiment at SNS Second Target Station or ESS Dark Sectors 2016 Workshop: Community Report 16 Collaboration K Bailey, B Bailey, L Broussard, V Cianciolo, L DeBeer-Schmitt, A Galindo-Uribarri, F Gallmeier, G. Greene, E Iverson, S Penttila Oak Ridge National Laboratory J Barrow, L Heilbronne, M Frost, Y Kamyshkov, C Redding, A Ruggles, B Rybolt, L Townsend, L Varriano University of Tennessee Knoxville
C Crawford University of Kentucky Lexington I Novikov Western Kentucky University D Baxter, C-Y Liu, M Snow Indiana University A Young North Carolina State University
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