Migration to Virginia - University of Idaho

Migration to Virginia - University of Idaho

MIGRATION TO VIRGINIA Role of England England weak, politically and economically in comparison to Spain. Henry VII had sponsored John Cabots voyages to Canada 1497, lost interest when NW passage not discovered. Lack of political will, and military capacity to challenge Spain before later 16thC But- dry run for colonial expansion in Ireland

Ireland Ireland conquered by Normans, but gradually England lost control. Tudors show renewed interest. Major military expeditions during Elizabethan period, led by soldiers & adventurers. Followed up by colonizers, especially those seeking large land holdings, use

of Gaelic Irish as serfs, frequent atrocities and brutality towards Irish seen as Catholic, barbaric, sub-humans. About 200,000 migrants from GB to Ireland 1600-1670, twice number who went to America Ireland as a blueprint Financed by Joint Stock Companies, same as would finance American colonies Use of promotional literature to popularize colonization Attitudes towards native peoples similar

Many of the individuals involved in Irish colonization later involved in American colonization e.g. Richard Grenville, Humphrey Gilbert, Walter Raleigh. English Imperial Ambitions Motivation: envy of Spanish treasure from America; wealth helped Spain become most powerful nation; English policy to break the Iberian monopoly on America due to fear that American

wealth, after Henry VIII's split with Rome (1534), could be used against them. English government sanctioned privateering operations against Spanish. Capturing Spanish treasure ships bringing gold & silver from New World. By 1580 increasingly dangerous to prey on Spanish shipping suggestion that American base needed. Idea that American colonies would also ease

English reliance on southern Europe for citrus fruits, silks, and vines. Importance of Propaganda, Richard Haklyut. 1st patent to settle in America granted to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, half brother to Walter Raleigh, permitted him to settle anywhere between Florida Early British Attempts Initially England was not successful

Martin Frobsier Searching for gold and a northwest passge 3 failed journeys between 15761578 Humphrey Gilbert Attempted to settle in Newfoundland failed, Gilbert dies at sea John Hawkins and Francis Drake

Successful in the Caribbean But as pirates not settlers But by 1580 England still had no permanent settlement in Americas Three English voyages to

settle North America in 1580s. The first landed at Roanoke Island, North Carolina on July 13th, 1584, short lived military expedition which found that the land was suitable for both cultivation and defence, returned home to England with 2 local Indians, Manteo & Roanoke Roanoke Island

1585-6, 2nd English Voyage under Ralph Lane, discovered Chesapeake Bay, ideal as naval base. Noted for the oil paintings of John White and the descriptions of Thomas Hariot. But, young male adventurers, with ambitions of land and wealth, not ideal colonists.

Indian relations deteriorated, food supply from Indians cut off Drake arrived summer 1586, seeking re-supply, ends up providing food for colonists, eventually agrees to return them to England The Lost Colony

Third voyage 1587: very different from previous ones most colonists farmers not soldiers, & came in family groups. Clearly intended to be a permanent settlement, self-sustaining and self-reproducing. John White = Governor, returned to England for more supplies, leaving daughter and granddaughter, Virginia Dare, at Roanoke. Unable to return until 1590 due to Spanish Armada, since all ships diverted to defence of realm. When finally arrives, found settlement abandoned, colonists never seen again. Most likely attacked by Indians, survivors

absorbed into tribes. Importance of Roanoke 3 voyages saw evolution of colonising thought Roanoke seen as A base for privateering, Then a place where valuable raw materials could be shipped to England, Third voyage aimed to settle permanently.

The lessons of Roanoke were clear: no colony could exist without full support from mother country for at least the first few years of existence; clear goals were needed good relations with the Indians were necessary Put this together and what was needed was Order Order would give control and allow for a structure

Although beginning of cracks in strict hierarchy Still a rigid concept Heading to the unknown there was a need to reinforce it Two examples of understanding of English order

All things bright and beautiful, All creatures great and small, All things wise and wonderful: The Lord God made them all. Each little flower that opens, Each little bird that sings, He made their glowing colors, He made their tiny wings. The rich man in his castle, The poor man at his gate, He made them, high or lowly, And ordered their estate.

Into this steps John Smith Born 1580 in England left home at age 16 after his father died Began travels France fighting for Dutch independence from Spain. Two years later, Mediterranean Sea, working on a merchant ship 1600 joined Austrian forces to fight the Turks

promoted to Captain while fighting in Hungary This is the moment were Smith fights and defeats Transylvania 1602 wounded in battle, captured, and sold as a slave to a Turk.

Turk sent Smith as a gift to his sweetheart in Istanbul Girl fell in love with him sent him to brother to get training for Turkish imperial service. Escaped by murdering the brother Returned to Transylvania through Russia and Poland

Released from service Received large reward Traveled Europe and Northern Africa Returned to England in the winter of 1604-05. After Roanoke 20 year wait for colonisation to restart Nothing possible until succession decided, too much uncertainty James I (1603-25) ends war with Spain 1604.

Leads to reconsideration of colonisation Importance of getting a charter, royal sanction/support Ends profits from privateering sets out claims, regardless of other powers 1606 charters given to Virginia Company of London and Virginia Company of Plymouth to settle between 34 and 45 degrees N latitude, (NC to Maine) Grant to

Virgini a Co. The Virginia Company Basically made up of merchants charter talks of trade and bringing Christianity to natives. Needs colonists as traders potential soldiers to defend against Spanish

Offers free land for settlers 144 young men to go on first voyage on board 3 ships (Godspeed, Discovery and Susan Constant) Arrives Jamestown May 1607 James Fort Migrants Before 1618 all migrants: Male Most under 25 Free land offered obvious

draw to poor, as well as to younger sons of gentry, i.e. those with little prospect of riches in England Main motivation economic, seeking fortune and status many migrants see Virginia as temporary home

Importance of indentured labour Main source of labour in Virginia before 1680 People were sold for number of years in return for passage. Possibility of land at end of service. Problems of flight seen as form of slavery,

Campbell / Galenson historical debate over social status Were migrants middling people or common sort ? Problem source materials mainly from 1650s incompleteness of data Probably reflected English population mainly poor (farmers, labourers, artisans), but not the truly destitute A few merchants, aristocrats, or wealthy people

Suggestion religion had role in colonisation Mentioned in charter Used as recruitment tactic But little attention paid by colonists once there. Authority derived from either tradition (elders), law (officials) or charisma (dictators)

First church built in 1639 32 years after arrival Rebuilt in 1907 on original spot A quick word about dates

People often say America began with the Pilgrim Fathers As you know James Town was founded in 1607 New England in 1620 Thirteen years earlier But did you also know. The first Africans were taken to James Town in 1619 This means African-Americans were settlers in America before the Pilgrims Problems of Authority Virginia has crisis of authority first two governors lose control quickly cant prevent a high death toll amongst early settlers

only 38 of 144 original migrants still alive in Nov 1607. Solved by John Smith elected Gov in Dec 1608 introduced system of Martial Law moved colony inland learned survival techniques from Indians reduced death rate. Capt John Smith

The Starving Time New fleet arrives June 1609, brings 900 new settlers. Smith ousted, and returns to England No effective leadership during harsh winter of 1609-10 lack of planning no food widespread starvation some cannibalism. stockpiled

Spring 1610 only 60 survivors Decide to return to England Prevented by arrival of new Governor Lord De La Warre Laws Divine, Moral and Martial De La Warre, formally introduces the Laws DMM in 1611 Very strict, aims to control populace

all to work collectively for survival of colony Begins to deter potential colonists similar to Smiths martial law Widespread attachment to rights of Englishmen Response of Virginia Co House of Burgesses First elected body in North America, July 1619 Again before Pilgrims Virginia Co charter revoked 1624,

becomes royal colony Economic Development No economic purpose to early settlement 1612 planting of Trinidadian tobacco by John Rolfe. Rapid growth of production

2,000 lbs in 1615 1.5m lbs 1629 Vast wealth possible high prices by 1620 meant single farmer with no extra labour could make 200/yr profit. Also cause of instability. Tobacco Pipes Indians Problems with Indians major factor in Virginia development Powhatan confederacy more powerful

than English Numbers approx 10,000 in 1620 1000 English in 1624 Initial antagonism disputes over property Smiths role situation calms in 1610s Rolfe marries Pocahontas

Powhatan sees English as potential allies vs interior tribes. Never imagines they would be threat to him Trades for weapons etc Powhatan dies 1622 Succeeded by brother Opechancanough more hostile to English especially encroachment on lands

Role of tobacco in taking Indian lands English authorities unable to prevent it Decision to attack on Good Friday (March 22) 1622 Achieves total

surprise Kills 347 whites out of population of 1200. Opechancanough thought English would leave But attack cements negative image of Indians among English makes their destruction easier to live with Conclusions Virginia in 1624 in turmoil Politically unstable

e.g. Virginia Co loss of charter 1624 Endured disease, war, death. Only about 1000 whites in Virginia after 17yrs of colonisation settlement still in balance could easily still fail. A LITTLE BACK TRACKING

Antonio Velazquez Summer 1561 Spanish Caravel buffeted by storms of South Carolina After storm saw a huge bay Bahia Santa

Anchored and encountered Indians Two agreed with return to Spain Younger Indian Paquiquineo given to King Philip II renamed Don Lus de Velasco A few months later asked to return home

The Journey of Don Lus de Velasco Went first to New Spain Became very ill end of first attempt to return home After recovering decided to remain and learn Catholic faith and Spanish ways But still kept the desire to return home Several years later Pedro Mendez de Avils, new governor of la Florida was ordered to protect the southeast from the French

1566 - Don Luis heads out with Catholic friars on a missionary journey to his old home For some reason ship couldnt find bay Captain against protests sailed back to Spain rather than Mexico Don Luis fails in second attempt to return home

1570 manages to get to Cuba September 1570 arrives back in Bahia Santa Maria Shortly thereafter Don Luis fled from the Spanish February 1571 Don Luis leads attack on, and destroys, Spanish settlement We know this because one Spanish boy, Alonso, was left alive and eventually returned to the

Why have I told this story? 1) Don Luis is an example of one of the many Native Americans who visited Europe 2) We may see Don Luis again under a different e tiv Na ia gi n Vir

The Rise of the Powhatans Central political development of the late 16th /early 17th century within Virginia Not arrival of English Rise of the Powhatan chiefdom

Wahunsonacock ruled over thirty or so tribes Region known as Tsenacommacala Stretched from south of the James River to the Potomac and from the coast to the falls

Tsenacommacah was well populated at the beginning of the seventeenth century. 15, 000 20,0000 people, dispersed in several hundred villages and hamlets Rivers and coastal waters provided a superb means of

travel Commonly used for transporting men and goods over long distances Powhatan settlements were small by European standards consisting of fewer An illustration of Secota (Secotan, near the Pamlico River in North

Carolina) Powhatan society organized for war response to the threat posed by powerful enemies to the north and west War was the ultimate test for every male a searching examination where only the strong, intelligent, or lucky would survive. Men were expected to display

strength and courage in hand-to-hand combat fortitude if captured and tortured wisdom in council. English soon learned of Powhatan power At time of English arrival A native nation who lived at the entrance to the bay The

Chesapeakes Resisted absorption into Tsenacommacah Powhatan response military attack Resulted in the slaughter of men, women, and children. As chiefdom grew So did wealth and influence Territories governed

through regional or district chiefs Brothers Opechancanough Opitchapam Kekataugh maintained tight control over the Pamunkeys

Son some of whom were close relatives Parahunt and Pochins Ruled important districts of Powhatan and Kecoughran at the falls and mouth of the James River Controlled Speculation The Powhatans and Smith

Historian Frederich Gleach has looked at the capture of Smith Using Controlled Speculation Offers a reinterpretation of the famous story of Smiths capture And subsequent release due to the intervention of Pocahontas Most famous incident in the history of Virginia Some doubt it happened and those who accept it explain it as an isolated event a planned adoption unpremeditated rescue by an infatuated young

woman. Gleach suggests it was part of a larger ritual Began with the act of capturing Captain John Smith in December 1607 Captured by a large party, of 200 to 300 bowmen, led by the Powhatan war-chief Opechancanough. His capture was more than incidental Immediately taken before

Opechancanough, whose duties as war-chief would include dealing with outsiders His life was threatened the first of three times this would happen during his captivity Then taken to the seasonal village of Rasawek and treated as a captive chief Three dances took place centered on Smith and Opechancanough

Kept there for close to a week His life being threatened again while there After this second threat the next phase of his captivity began A physical transition from the margins of Tsenacommacah to its heart, the village of Powhatan

A metaphysical transformation from English to Anglo-Powhatan. Smith taken to a series of smaller, peripheral villages returned to Rasawek Then taken to Menapacute, one of the main villages of Pamunkey. It was while Smith was here that the redefinition ritual took place creating a place for the English in the Powhatan world.

Powhatans then returned Smith to the periphery of Tsenacommacah, From this outside position he was brought to Werowocomoco, Powhatan's principal residence. Smith's old life being ended, Pocahontas ceremonially spared him from death, allowing him to begin his new life as a Powhatan

Two days later the ritual was completed Giving Smith and the colony a specific place in Tsenacommacah. Smith was returned to Jamestown, early in 1608. Opechancanough Powahtans leading warrior Little known about Opechancanoughs origins A few intriguing

references suggest that he may have been none other than Paquiquineo (Don Luis) Powhatan saw English as potential allies vs. interior tribes. Never imagines they would be threat Trades for weapons etc

Powhatan dies 1622 Succeeded by brother Opechancanough more hostile to English especially encroachment on lands Role of tobacco in taking Indian lands English authorities unable to prevent it

Decision to attack on Good Friday (March 22) 1622 Achieves total surprise Kills 347 whites out of population of 1200. Opechancanough thought English would leave But attack cements negative image of

Indians among English makes their destruction easier to live with

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