Middle Ages Medieval Times/Dark Ages Why the Dark Ages? Imples that on either end of the period, there was light. Civilization, as previously experienced during The Roman Empire, was suspended from 500- 1500 C.E. The Early Middle Ages 500-1000 C.E. Most kingdoms were made up of inhabitants that were Pastoral
Nomads or Subsistence Farmers. Very few people could read or write. Limited trade. Political Leaders were Tribal Chieftains. Early Middle Ages Christianity/Roman Catholicism centralized in Rome.
Cultural Unification despite absence of centralized European authority. Roman Concept of rule by law replaced by family ties and personal loyalties. Warriors bound to a chief by oaths of loyalty Feudalism and Manorialism Feudalism: A complex system of political and military loyalties linked lords together. Manorialism: a system that in which peasants were tied to land to
supply labor. Franks Clovis- Unified the western portion of Europe under his authority as King from 481-511 CE Converted to Christianity. Overtook Germanic peoples by military conquest. Lost power to Charles the Hammer of the Carolingian
Family - later to be headed by Charlemagne. Charlemagne Kept control of kingdom otherwise vulnerable to Viking attacks from late 700-1000 CE Divided territory into counties headed by a count. Charlemagne checked their power by having a royal agent
acting as his eyes and ears. In 800, crowned as emperor (Holy Roman Empire) His son, heir to the throne, Louis The Pious, divided his kingdom amongst his sons who fought amongst themselves for Economy of Early Middle Ages Barter System: Trade existed in the absence of coinage or money, traded item for item. Trade outside of the kingdom
very limited, dangerous. Self sustaining kingdoms. Serfs had ownership rights as long as they made loyalty agreements and uphold their oath. Church Hierarchy The church acted as a powerful force in unifying Europe despite differences in culture, language and customs. Monasteries acted as centers of school, refuge, libraries, and
duplicating (books). High Middle Ages 1000-1500 C.E. Hierarchy becomes more complex as middle class emerges.
Signs of civilizations recovery, accelerated by 1200 C.E. Resurgence of arts, artisan/craftsmen class, trade technological innovations -plows, horse collalrs, agricultural methods. More Food = Population Increase, toens grow into cities. The Power of the Church
Canon Law- Church rules for behavior, filled the void of strong political authority. Excommunication- The ability of the church to ban individuals from sacrament. Interdict- Excommunicated all people in the realm of a kingdom. Western Europe Grows Centralized Governments England, France and Spain remain strong and stable up
through 1450 CE. Early signs of political progress: o Limited Government o Magna Cart (forced signature of King John) o Parliaments o Fostered growth for Democracies. 100 Years War William The Conqueror of Normandy, takes England at Battle of Hastings During 14th and 15th centuries,
Frances kingdoms fight England over English territories. Clash between old governing rules under feudalism and modern claims of nation states. Crusades Call for Purification of Christianity. Christian Zeal of Missionaries who feel obligated to spread as populations push Christianity to new borders.
Pope Urban II in 1095 C.E. calls upon christians to save the holy city of Jerusalem, from the Turks, by undertaking a journey for the remission of your sins, and be assured of the reward of imperishable glory in the Kingdom of Heaven. Economic Developments Venice and Genoa Italy remained unwilling to abandon
roots of Roman Empire, they never adopted Feudalism. Both cities rivaled Constantinople of The Roman Empire by the early 13th century. Banking in the West - use of money and investments. Complex Trade from North to South exchanging Timber and Grain in the North for Metals and Cloth in the South > Specialization Hanseatic League
Facilitated trade as more towns purchase charters, severing feudal ties. Towns emerge and produce more wealth for the king, who in turn builds larger more powerful armies. Craftsmen from Guilds for specialized labor. Sharing ideas, training apprentices. Mobility
Serfs begin to transform into skilled labor workers, traders and merchants. Churches hold large estates of land and maintain wealth, act as lenders to prospective traders and merchants. Banking industry dominated by Jews, who were forbidden from craft guilds and land ownership. o Eventually Jews were driven out of Western Europe to Eastern Europe by Mobs. Culture and Art
Italy serves as a pre-renaissance hub of culture, education and trade. Art becomes more realistic and stylistic, breaking from trends that were established centuries prior. Universities emerge outside of Italy in France, Germany and England. By 1200, universities begin teaching Greek and Roman Works, not just religion.
Scholasticism- reconcile beliefs of religion with Greek 1300s Art, language and culture develop rapidly, starting in Italy. Vernacular Languages, not just Latin are being published and translated. Common Oral Languages (Vernacular) are replacing old Latin in print, started with The Divine Comedy, which outlined
the 3 parts of the afterlife: Inferno, Purgatorio and Paradiso.
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