Measuring Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety occurs when there is a substantial imbalance between the individuals perception of their ability and their perception of the demands and importance of the situation. (MARTENS) Perception of the situational ANXIETY Demands. e.g. I must win my leg of the relay if my
team is to have the chance of winning. Perception of ability to cope. e.g. I am not as good as my opponent Perception of the importance of the situation. e.g. The result of this competition hinges on this relay race. Methods
Observation Physiological/ Biofeedback Self Report Questionnaire s Can you think of advantages and disadvantages for each? Measures of Anxiety Physiological Tests- biological tests, such as monitoring HR, or galvanic skin
response (sweat levels on the skin) Advantages- can be done during performance, factual measures Disadvantages- measuring equipment can be restrictive and the athlete might not be willing to take part in competition, being measured can increase stress. Measures of Anxiety Observations- involves watching others
as they perform, can be done live or via video for example. Advantage- a realistic, true to life picture can be obtained Disadvantage- the observer may be biased and need training themselves. Performers arousal levels may be increased if the know they are being watched. Time consuming, need more than one person, subjective, evaluation apprehension.
Measures of Anxiety Questionnaires- SCAT/CSAI-2/STAI Advantages- quick, easy, cheap, deal with lots of info. Disadvantages- people tend to give socially acceptable answers and might misunderstand some questions. State Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI
A self-report questionnaire in which people rate how nervous they feel in both general and in specific situations. 20 statements for state anxiety 20 statements for trait anxiety The scoring system for the questions gives an indication of both the state anxiety and the trait anxiety of the performer. Anxiety
Competitive Anxiety Specific to sport Main Perceived threat to a sports performer is competition, which can include worries of: Not playing well Letting the team down Not meeting the training demands before the event Damaging personal relationships Injury
SCAT The performers competitive trait anxiety and the competitive situation together generate a threatening situation, which in turn increases the performers competitive state anxiety. Competitive Sport Anxiety Inventory CSAI-2 To identify the type of anxiety experienced Measures sate anxiety and responding
behaviour Cognitive, somatic anxiety and self confidence Given out an hour before competition Enables researchers to discover baseline levels of anxiety and compare it with precompetition levels to see if they differ. Sport Competition Anxiety SCAT SCAT developed, this aimed to measure
competitive trait anxiety of a performer in pre competitive environment. 15 statements Scoring from a sport specific situation gives an indication of that persons level of state anxiety in competition-specific situations. Many elite performers complete personality and anxiety tests as part of their preparation for competition
Name one self-report questionnaire often used to measure anxiety and outline the disadvantages of using this form of data collection. (3 marks) Answers 3 marks for 3 of: Named test A. Sport Competition Anxiety Test/SCAT B. State Trait Anxiety Inventory/STAI C. Competitive Sport Anxiety Inventory/CSAI-2
Disadvantages D. Misinterpretation of questions/lack of understanding E. Answers may not be truthful/provide socially desirable answers F. Questions may not allow for full answers/limited options to express emotions G. Inappropriate questions/biased questions H. Situation when completed may not be ideal/may rush to complete questionnaire Different methods of assessment can be used to measure anxiety levels and also to
identify potential elite performers. What are the disadvantages of using observation as a method to assess anxiety? (3 marks) A. Subjective/not objective B. Reliant on skill of the observer C. Time consuming/expensive/needs to be completed several times D. Observer needs to know normal behaviour patterns
of performer for comparison E. May need several observers (at the same time) F. If performer knows observation is occurring they may behave differently/become more anxious/increased state anxiety/experience evaluation apprehension/social inhibition
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