Materials Selection for Engineering Design

Materials Selection for Engineering Design

Design in Materials Engineering MSE 401 Course Description Classes of materials and materials data in design. Materials indices in design and designing against failure. Selection of materials and manufacturing processes in design. Process data and indices. Materials and industrial design, materials and the environment, Engineering ethics (law, contracts, code of ethics). Capable of working individually and within a team especially

Grading Scheme: Absence from a quiz, lab. or an examination will result in zero grade. Midterm 20% Lab work 10% Final

30% Project 40% Books Text book 1) M. F. Ashby, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, 3rd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005. 2) Charles B. Fleddermann, Engineering Ethics, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, 2007. Reference Books 1) M.M. Farag, Materials Selection for Engineering Design, Prentice Hall,

1997. 2) G.E. Dieter, L.C. Schmidt, Engineering Design, 4th edition, McGrawHill, 2008. M. F. Ashby, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design This book (5 chapters) is about mechanical design, and the role of materials in it. Mechanical components have mass; they carry loads; they

conduct heat and electricity; they are exposed to wear and to corrosive environments; they are made of one or more materials; they have shape; and they must be manufactured. Course Outline Week Topics 1 Introduction to Materials Design and Process

2 Classes and Properties of Engineering Materials in Design 3 Materials Data and Property Charts in Design 4 Materials Data and Property Charts in Design (cont.) 5

Material Selection in Design (steps of materials selection and design, screening, ranking, decision making) 6 Material indices in design (structural and material index) 7 Designing against failure (types of failure, safety factor, loading types, designing for high temperature and cyclic loading, resilience, etc.)

8 Midterm I 9 Student Project Presentations 10 Student Project Presentations 11

Student Project Presentations 12 Student Project Presentations 13 Student Project Presentations 14 Student Project Presentations

Road Map Explain the interdependency of product function, material, process, and geometry Describe fundamental material classes Define and characterize mechanical and physical properties

Describe and apply methods to evaluate material selection Differentiate and select primary, secondary , and tertiary processes Understand and apply methods to select appropriate manufacturing processes

Estimate the costs of manufacturing a product. Materials Selection The designer of any product, other than software must get involved with material selection. Only occasionally will the exact grade of

material be specified by the customer. Even then the designer must understand the material to be able to design the product. Evolution of engineering materials Engineering materials are evolving faster, and the choice is wider than ever before.

Examples of products in which a new material has captured a market are as common plastic bottles. aluminium cans. polycarbonate eyeglass lenses. carbon-fiber golf club shafts.

Decisions, decisions! So many materials, so much information. How do we decide? How do we begin to choose? First we need to look at the function of the product product analysis Design Process Starting point Market need or a new idea End point product specification of a product that embodies the idea

Product Technical system Sub-assembles Components Design converts the inputs into the outputs The resulting arrangement is called the function-structure or function decomposition of the system. The function-structure gives a systematic way of assessing design options.

The design proceeds by developing concepts to perform the functions in the function structure, each based on a working principle. kes a t , t men eeks to i d o emb s and s

, e g sta ept c t x n e o t an c n

a g e n n h T misi operatio o r p eir the h

t e el. z v y e l l a an ate m i

x o appr The emb odiment stage en feasible l ds with a ayout, wh ich is the to the de n passed tailed de

sign stag e. The consequences of choices made at the concept or embodiment stages may not become apparent until the detail is examined. The trial paths have deadends, and they loop back. It is like finding a track across difficult terrain it may be necessary to go back many times if, in the end, we are to go forward. Once a path is found, it is always

possible to make it look linear and logical. Types of design Original design; (a new idea or working principle) Adaptive design (seeks an incremental advance in performance through a

refinement of the working principle) Variant design (a change of scale or dimension or detailing without change of function) Design Tools Materials selection enters each stage of the design. Ex; a polymer may be the best choice for one concept, a metal for another, even though the function is the same. The problem, at this stage, is not precision and detail; it is breadth and speed of access: how can the vast range of data be presented to give the designer the greatest freedom

in considering alternatives? At the embodiment stage the landscape has narrowed. Here we need data for a subset of materials, but at a higher level of precision and detail. These are found in the more specialized handbooks and software that deal with a single class or subclass of materials The final stage of detailed design requires a still higher level of precision and detail, but for only one or a very few materials. Such information is best found in the datasheets issued by the material producers themselves, and in

Product Analysis Just what it says analyse the product! What does it do? How does it do it?

Where does it do it? Who uses it? What should it cost? Case Study a bike What is the function of a bike obvious? How does the function depend on the type of bike?

Racing Touring Mountain bike Commuter Childs Case Study a bike

How is it made to be easily maintained? What should it look like (colours etc.)? What should it cost? How has it been made comfortable to ride? How do the mechanical parts work and interact? Component or system?

1st problem is. Is it one component or a system of components working together? A spanner is a component, a cordless screwdriver is a system. System Analysis When we analyse a system we need to break the system down into individual components and then analyse each one.

Cordless screwdriver System Analysis the bike The bike breaks down (we hope not!) into various parts: Frame Forks Wheels Saddle Etc. System Analysis the bike We now need to look at the following for each part:

Requirements (mechanical, ergonomic, aesthetic etc.) Function How many are going to be made? What manufacturing methods are we going to use? Manufacturing This is a key question which has a massive influence on materials selection. e.g. The frame, what materials could we use?

Frame Materials Steel Strong, stiff, heavy, but cheap Aluminium weaker, lighter, more expensive than steel Composite (CFRP) strong, stiff, very light, but expensive to buy and to fabricate Bike Frame Frame Design Detail

What Properties? Mechanical

Strength, modulus etc. Physical Density, melting point. Electrical Conductivity, resistivity. Aesthetic Appearance, texture, colour Processability Ductility, mouldability And last, but not least. Cost, cost, cost! Where do I find the data?

Textbooks Databooks Manufacturers literature Internet Sites Textbooks

Good for general information Some have tables of properties Not good for detailed specifications and properties. A useful first point of call Databooks

One of the quickest sources of detailed information. Usually contain grades and specifications as well as properties. Small and perfectly formed pocketbooks Easy to navigate around Manufacturers literature

Variable in quality and usefulness. Often only cover their products. Usually do not compare materials. Can be biased. Good for final selection before ordering. Internet Sites

Can be a real minefield. Lots of poorly presented information. Google searches bring up lots of rubbish. Hard to find technical information. Best to use non-commercial sites. The interaction between function, material, shape, and process lies at the heart of the material selection

process Case study: devices to open corked bottles End of chapters 1 and 2

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