Major histocompatibility complex - Denton ISD

Major histocompatibility complex - Denton ISD

MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBI LITY COMPLEX MHCs: The Role of Cell Surface Markers MHC-MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX Immunity = ability to distinguish between "self" and "non-self Every cell carries same set of distinctive surface proteins distinguish

you as "self Pattern is unique to individual Set of unique markers on human cells = major histocompatibility complex (MHC). IMMUNE RESPONSE Respond against/eliminate foreign agents Protein

toxin molecule Virus Infectious bacterium Lack of MHC = Lack of immune response HISTOCOMPATILIBITY Similarity of patterns of MHC molecules Skin

grafts Tissue/organ transplants Organ transplants Both individuals examined for genetic similarity Blood group & MHC molecules 10/12 matches Medicine to lower immune response MHC CLASS I/II Inherit 2 of each class (MHC I/II) 1

from Mom 1 from Dad Both sets of Class I or Class II OR sometimes both are expressed on cell surface Induction of immune response of invader Class (I/II) expressed on surface

MHCS WHICH CELLS EXPRESS MCH I/II? All nucleated cells = equally express BOTH sets of just MCH I ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS Some specialized cells of immune system = express BOTH sets of MCH I AND MCH II B-lymphocytes

Macrophages Certain dendritic cells Capacity to express MHC Class II molecules known as AntigenPresenting Cells (APC) ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS Can present parts of proteins taken up by the ACP to T lymphocytes.

NON-SPECIFIC MECHANISM First line of defense Physical barriers of the body Skin Mucous Tears Saliva pH of skin

NON-SPECIFIC MECHANISM 2nd line of defense White blood cells + inflammatory response Phagocytosis (Neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils) Inflammation = blood supply increased in injured area (redness, heat) Swelling = histamine released by basophils

and mast cells, triggers inflammatory response SPECIFIC IMMUNE MECHANISM Recognizes SPECIFIC foreign material and destroys it Antibodies, Killer T cells Active vs. Passive immunity Active = develops after recovery disease or

vaccination Chicken pox, vaccinations (measles, mumps, rubella) Passive = passed from one individual to another NOT PERMANENT! Ex: Breast-feeding passes immunities to child 2 TYPES OF RESPONSES TO ANTIGENS 1. Humoral immunity

-B Cell activation -Production of antibodies 2. Cell-mediated response - Production of Cytotoxic T Cells HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE Antibodies produced Bind to antigens = easier targets for phagocytes. Mainly fluids free bacteria, toxins, viruses in body

HUMORAL RESPONSE HUMORAL RESPONSE T-Cell (Helper T Cell) Specifically interacts with MHC II shapes produces cytokines Cytokines (IL-2) stimulate activated B cells to produce

antibodies Now, anywhere toxin is in system engulfed by macrophages! CYTOKINES Secreted proteins + signaling molecules Interleukin promote B cells

development and differentiation of T & Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Inflammatory response (fever) Macrophage secretes IL-1 after presenting antigen IL-1 + presented antigen Activates helper T Cell to produce IL-2 CYTOKINES

Secreted proteins + signaling molecules Interleukin promote development and differentiation of T & B cells Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Inflammatory response (fever) Macrophage secretes IL-1 after presenting antigen IL-1 + presented antigen Activates helper T Cell to produce IL-2 Interleukin-2 (IL-2) The Recruiter

Helps B cells that have contacted antigen to differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells Helps Cytotoxic T cells become active killers CELL MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE Cytotoxic T cells (Killer T cells) produces killer substances Active against viruses/bacteria

within infected cells Will be eliminated from the body Depends on MHC Class I AND II CELL MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE Viral proteins associate with MHC I Transported

to surface Recognized by cytotoxic T cell (Killer T Cell) Binds to specific fragment shape of MHC I and foreign protein shape (FITS TO ONLY FOREIGN) ACTIVATES AND PREPARES KILLING SUBSTANCES Waits

for permission from Helper T cell CELL MEDIATED RESPONSE Helper T Cell Activated by interaction of APC (Antigen Presenting Cell) presenting fragments via MCH II molecules

Just like in Humoral Response! Helper T Cell releases cytokines (IL-2) SIGNALS KILLER T CELL TO RELEASE THE KILLING SUBSTANCES! Kills cell that contains virus Eventually rid body ORGAN TRANSPLANTS MHC Class I / II expressed on

surface of tissue Different shapes than our own Recognized by helper and killer T cells See it as out own MHC molecules presenting foreign fragments Perceived as our own tissue that is infected REJECTION-IMMUNE SYSTEM ATTACKS! 10/12 MHCs must match

Immunosuppressant medication

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • En la presencia de Dios Todo el pueblo

    En la presencia de Dios Todo el pueblo

    En la presencia de Dios Todo el pueblo percibía los truenos y relámpagos, el sonido de la trompeta y el monte que humeaba; y cuando el pueblo vio aquello, temblaron, y se mantuvieron a distancia…
  • Realism and Pacifism

    Realism and Pacifism

    Realism and Pacifism. Realism. Realists argue that war is a non-moral activity - actions such as killing or stealing may be wrong for individuals, but have no application to nations in times of war. A country does not therefore, have...
  • 5.1 Rate of Change and Slope Rate of

    5.1 Rate of Change and Slope Rate of

    5.1 Rate of Change and Slope. Rate of Change: The relationship between two changing quantities. Slope: the ratio of the . vertical. change (rise) to the
  • English II Monday, 10-17-11

    English II Monday, 10-17-11

    Callay!"He chortled in his joy. 'Twas brillig, and the slithy tovesDid gyre and gimble in the wabe;All mimsy were the borogoves,And the mome raths outgrabe. Read the poem carefully as I read it aloud.Although you will not know many of...
  • Mr Blacks Animated Maths Notes Using Mr Bartons

    Mr Blacks Animated Maths Notes Using Mr Bartons

    Mr Black's Animated Maths Notes. Shape & Space. 2. Polygons. Using Mr Barton's original notes. 2. Polygons. What are Polygons? A Polygon is any closed shape which has three or more sides. Regular Polygons. All their sides are the same...
  • CS345 02 - Computer Systems

    CS345 02 - Computer Systems

    BYU CS 345. FAT File System. The FAT File System. Files are stored on the disk as linked clusters. A cluster maps to one or more sectors (defined in boot sector)
  • Strata Operational Model Design - R&R Consulting

    Strata Operational Model Design - R&R Consulting

    This document and all information contained herein is the sole property of R&R Consulting SARL. No intellectual property rights are granted by the delivery of this document or the disclosure of its content. This document shall not be reproduced or...
  • securite sur GRID

    securite sur GRID

    Tutorial EGEE utilisateur Marseille 3 - 4 Oct. 2006 Sécurité sur le GRID Sophie Nicoud (CNRS/UREC)