LITERARY TERMS ENGLISH II DAY 1 Use the literary terms chart provided to take notes as we discuss todays terms. Remember that you will see these terms on assignments throughout the semester. Their
mastery is vital to success in this course. ALLITERATION DEF: the repetition of a consonant sound in the first syllable of words within a sentence or passage (not vowel) EX: She sells sea shells by the seashore. (**tongue twisters are alliteration on steroids!)
EX: The glistening stars gleamed on the waters surface. HYPERBOLE DEF: extreme exaggeration used for emphasis or humor EX: I am so tired I could sleep for two days straight. EX: . . . the shot heard round the world. (Emerson) SIMILE (FIGURE OF SPEECH)
DEF: The comparison of two different things using like or as EX: James was flopping like a fish when Julie tickled him. EX: Her eyes twinkled like stars. EX: She was as cool as a cucumber during her interview. METAPHOR (FIGURE OF SPEECH)
DEF: A comparison of two unlike things without using like or as EX: Her eyes were stars. EX: You are the radiant sun. Ex: Life is a battle. ONOMATOPOEIA (FIGURE OF SPEECH) DEF: A word that imitates or suggests the
sound that it describes EX: The boom of the cannon scared me. EX: The owl screeched all night long and kept me up. PERSONIFICATION (FIGURE OF SPEECH) DEF: Giving human traits (qualities, feelings, actions, characteristics) to something nonhuman.
EX: The sounds of the sea were calling me back home. Ex: The thunder grumbled like an old man. ALLUSION DEF: brief reference to a person, place, event or story that all people know. (If it starts with a capital letter and you dont know what it is, it may be an allusion) EX: Tests are my Achilles heel.
EX: Sally has a smile that rivals that of the Mona Lisa. EX: If it keeps raining like this, were going to need to build an ark. (?) EX: We saw the Hoover Dam on our recent trip to the West. EX: Outside of the newly constructed Twin Towers, thousands paid homage to the victims of 9/11. FORESHADOWING DEF: clues that hint at what is going to happen later
in the plot EX: Miss Gulchs transformation (Wizard of Oz) EX: A plague on both your houses. (Mercutio, Romeo and Juliet) EX: scary, dramatic music gets louder in horror movie IMAGERY DEF: words or phrases that appeal to any of the five senses to recreate sight, sound,
smell, taste, or touch EX: music coursed through our veins EX: the scent of warm cookies wafted in the air EX: the fuzzy sweater caused me to itch ACTIVITY!!! Watch video: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=U_pxfifB6Co
Think of a song you know all or most of the words to. Start writing the song lyrics down and look for examples of the 10 literary terms that we just defined. DAY 2 PROTAGONIST DEF: principal (main) character; the
force that drives the action (plot) of the story EX: Superman in Man of Steel EX: Romeo AND Juliet in Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare ANTAGONIST DEF: the main character or force that
opposes the protagonist (causes problems), creating conflict in the story EX: Voldemort (archenemy of Harry Potter) EX: Lex Luthor (archenemy of Superman) IDIOM An expression not meant literally that means
something other than the literal meanings of its individual words. Ex: Having a chip on your shoulder means you have a bad attitude. Ex: Being sick as a dog means you are very ill. Ex: Rubbing someone the wrong way means to annoy or bother him or her. OXYMORON
combination of words that contradict each other Ex: deafening silence Ex: wise fool Ex: honest thief Ex: bittersweet DIRECT CHARACTERIZATION DEF: writer TELLS the audience the personality of a
character; the description actually is IN THE TEXT. EX: The first thing Rainsfords eyes discerned was the largest man Rainsford had ever seen a gigantic creature, solidly made and black bearded to the waist. EX: Ivan is an incredibly strong fellow, remarked the general, but he has the misfortune to be deaf and dumb. A simple fellow, but, Im afraid, like all his race, a bit of a savage. Real Life Example: Dating Websites and Obituaries
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhItB78o_kU INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION DEF: writer SHOWS the audience the personality of a character; the description may be implied* but NOT STATED, so the reader must infer* STEAL Method: What the character SAYS and THINKS, his or her EFFECTS on others, and his or her ACTIONS and LOOKS.
https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=R7m5Int1hAA&list=PLISIp2KTLK_jF51Q665KfNWMy D0VjxtuH CONFLICT DEF: A struggle between opposing forces; the basis of plot
Ex: Man vs. Man Ex: Man vs. Nature Ex: Man vs. Machinery Ex: Man vs. Environment Ex: Man vs. Supernatural Ex: Man vs. Self INTERNAL CONFLICT DEF: characters decisionmaking; conflict that takes
place in the mind EX: Study or watch TV? EX: Run or fight? EXTERNAL CONFLICT DEF: struggle between a character and an outside force EX: fisherman vs. Storm (The Deadliest Catch)
EX: Tom Robinson vs. Mayella Ewell (To Kill a Mockingbird) DENOTATION The dictionary meaning of a word. Ex. The definition of lake is an inland body of water. CONNOTATION
Def: Ideas and feelings associated with a word in addition to its explicit dictionary meaning EX: Cheap v. Inexpensive (what do you imagine if I use these words to describe something?) EX: Slender v. gaunt EX: Assertive v. pushy
CONNOTATION V. DENOTATION https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FmqOld0Ye-4 SYMBOL DEF: Word or object that stands for another word or object. EX: The Mockingjay in The Hunger Games
https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=JkI6cn8wwgM ARCHETYPE Def: a perfect example of something; universal characters, situations, images and symbols that occur in the stories of all cultures The Damsel in Distress - The hero rescues her The Devil Figure - Tempts the hero
The Evil Genius - Seeks revenge and hates all Friendly Beast - Assists the hero The Journey Good Versus Evil ACTIVITY!! Work in groups of 3 or 4 to identify the following: 1.A song, television show, film, or story that exemplifies the term assigned to your group
2.A word that has different denotative and connotative meaning 3.An example of direct and indirect characterization DAY 3 SITUATIONAL IRONY DEF: Unexpected events; Irony that occurs when what we expect to happen is the opposite
of what actually does happen EX: The small nerd beats up the big jock. EX: A single woman reluctantly goes to a wedding but ends up meeting the man she marries. EX: The paint inside a can promises to stop metal from rusting, yet the metal can it is in is rusted.
DRAMATIC IRONY DEF: Irony which occurs when the audience or reader knows something important that a character does not know. EX: In a movie, a slasher is in the woods and the audience can see him. The character runs to the woods to hide not knowing the slasher is in the woods. EX: Romeo does not know Juliet is just asleep
in the tomb. The reader or audience knows this information. VERBAL IRONY DEF: Irony where a writer or speaker says something but means something else. EX: Your Ds and Fs Will surely get you in the Smart People of America Club.
How wonderful it is that the water will be turned off for six hours tomorrow! POINT OF VIEW DEF: perspective from which the narrator tells a story (first person, third person omniscient, third person limited- occasionally second person) First person -- one of the characters is usually the narrator telling the story (pronouns I, me, my, mine)
Third person omniscient -- the person telling the story knows everything about the characters and their problems. The narrator is not in the story Third person limited -- the narrator, who is one of the characters, zooms in on one characters thoughts and feelings. PUN
A play on words involving a word with two or more different meanings or two words that sound alike but have different meanings. EX: Police were called to a daycare where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. EX: What did the grape say when it got stepped on? Nothing - but it let out a little whine. EX: Santas helpers are subordinate Clauses.
FLASHBACK A flashback is an interruption in the plot to describe an action of the past. After the flashback, the story returns to the present time of action. Flashbacks provide background information in a more interesting way; this could be thru thoughts, memories, or dreams
Flashbacks can explain the reasons behind a characters behavior or events and situations that might be unclear DYNAMIC CHARACTER DEF: the major character who encounters conflict and is changed by it EX: Jo in Twister (movie) EX: Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz
EX: Harry Potter EX: Buzz Lightyear in Toy Story FLAT CHARACTER DEF: Characters who have only one or two personality traits and dont change; a 2-dimensional character that can be described in one sentence EX: the witch (Wizard of Oz)
EX: Kelso (That 70s show) EX: the heros sidekick: Robin THEME DEF: subject, topic, or focal idea of an artistic piece; authors message to audience or point of focus EX: A theme in Romeo and Juliet is love. EX: coming of age; friendship; war **In analysis, theme is given as a complete sentence=
Love inspires sacrifice. MOOD DEF: the feeling/atmosphere the writer creates through tone; emotional response created IN the READER EX: sympathetic, outraged, shocked, disappointed, excited, nervous, hopeful, satisfied, appreciative, energized
MY (the readers) feelings while reading TONE DEF: the writers attitude towards his or her subject; tone reflects the writers feelings EX: matter-of-fact or straightforward, sincere, suspenseful, argumentative, sarcastic, whimsical or playful,
pessimistic, reflective PARALLELISM the repetition of a grammatical structure in order to create a rhythm and make words more memorable. Ex. Neutrality helps the oppressor, never the victim. Silence encourages the tormentor, never the tormented. Elie Wiesel hiking, biking, and swimming
REPETITION the use of a sound, word, phrase, clause, or sentence more than once for emphasis I do not like green eggs and ham. I do not like them Sam I am. Never in his life has he been so vilely treated and never in his life had he been so angry. The Call of the WIld
ACTIVITY!! Get in groups from yesterday. Think of a DIFFERENT movie you have all seen that you can find at least 6 examples of the literary terms from today (try to find examples in one movie for each type of irony) DAY 4
ROUND CHARACTER DEF: well-developed character with varied personality traits, usually dynamic(sometimes honest, sometimes not/sometimes caring, sometimes selfish...) EX: Eric (That 70s Show) EX: Napoleon (Animal Farm)
STATIC CHARACTER DEF: minor characters who do not change or grow in the course of the story, often flat EX: Sherlock Holmes EX: Kermit the Frog EX: Tom Sawyer EX: Robin -- Batmans counterpart FOIL CHARACTER
a character who sets off another character by providing a sharp contrast. Characters may be different in personalities, situations, behaviors, physical appearance and attitudes. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. hyde Mercutio/Romeo Voldemort/Professsor Dumbledore
DICTION/DIALECT Diction- refers to the writers word choice; why choose simple, easy to understand words? complex, technical terms? sophisticated language? slang? Dialect refers to the speech patterns of a particular region or social group; naturally, it changes from location to location and is often a reflection of an authors native region Example: aint, hafta, yessum, Smatter
Shet de do -- Shut the door. Ex. Different words for soft drink in various regions of the country ( Coke, pop, soda) RHETORICAL QUESTION Questions with obvious answers, used to emphasis that opinion; thus, proving the need for agreement with the author/speaker EX: Arent you ashamed of yourself?
Ex:How did that idiot ever get elected? Ex: What business is it of yours? Aint I a woman? UNDERSTATEMENT A figure of speech in which a writer or speaker deliberately makes a situation seem less important or less serious than it actually is; opposite of hyperbole
EX: "Well, that's cast rather a gloom over the evening, hasn't it?" (when the Grim Reaper comes to dinner in Monty Python's The Meaning of Life) EX: I have to have this operation. It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain." (Holden Caulfield, The Catcher In The Rye by J. D. Salinger) ANALOGY DEF: comparison built on relationships between words;
to complete an analogy, identify the relationship between the known elements and create the same relationship with the unknown element EX: Fish is to swim as bird is to fly. EX: Word:Sentence::Page:Book EX: furious:anger::terrified:_______ AUTOBIOGRAPHY DEF: a persons account of his or her own life; a story
written by ones self EX: The Diary of Anne Frank EX: Never Die Easy: The Autobiography of Walter Payton BIOGRAPHY DEF: an account of a persons life written by someone else EX: Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power
EX: Ever After: Diana and the Life She Had BONUS WORDS PARADOX a statement that seems contradictory but actually reveals a deeper truth; an extended oxymoron of sorts Ex. jumbo shrimp is an oxymoron (2 words) Ex.You shouldn't go in the water until you know how to swim =
paradox Ex. In Shakespeare's Hamlet, the title character states, "I must be cruel to be kind." EUPHEMISM A nicer way of saying something- a mild, indirect, or vague expression used in place of a more direct, offensive, harsh, or blunt. EX: Passed away for Died
EX: Letting someone go instead of firing someone EX: Put to sleep instead of euthanize or kill EX: Between places instead of homeless PLOT DEF: how the action of the story is presented Exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution plot triangle
STAGES OF THE WRITING PROCESS prewriting (mapping, charting) drafting (writing- content focused) revising(rewording,moving paragraphs) editing (grammar, spelling corrections) publishing (printing, sharing work)
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