LINGUISTICS 200: Introduction to Linguistic Thought

LINGUISTICS 200: Introduction to Linguistic Thought

Today Parts of vocal tract used in producing consonants Articulatory Description of consonants ...its all about air! Readings: 3.3 Consonants

Speech sounds produced with a narrowing somewhere in the vocal tract (soft palate) r pha ynx This view: A Midsaggital Section epiglottis Major structures

Structure (noun) lips teeth alveolar ridge hard palate velum (soft palate) nasal cavity glottis Adjectival descriptor labial (labio-) dental alveolar (alveo-) palatal velar

nasal glottal Active vs. Passive Articulators LOCATION 1. Pharynx MOVEMENT no movement 2. Larynx (Vocal Folds and Glottis) 3. Oral Cavity -- Ton gue (ti p, blade, back)

vibrat e ; open and close --Lips --Te eth --Alveolar Ridge --Hard Pala t e --Soft Palat e (velum) --Uvula 4. Nasal Cavity rais e s, lowe rs, moves for ward and back

close, sprea d, and round no movement FUNCTION a place of articula t ion in some languag e s provides vibration for "voiced" sounds moves to shape airst ream moves to shape

airst ream work with t he tongu e to shape the ai rstream no movement works wi t h the tong ue to shape the air no movement works wi t h the tong ue to shape the air no movement works wi t h the tong ue to shape the air rais e s and lowe rs allows air into the nasal cavity no movement

shapes t he air Articulatory Description For consonants, three-part classification system: 1) Voicing 2) Place (of articulation) 3) Manner (of articulation) e.g., voiced labiodental fricative = [v] 1) Voicing Voicing: what is happening at the LARYNX?

Front Vocal folds Glottis Back Are the vocal folds spread apart (voiceless), or are they close together and vibrating (voiced)? voiced

voiceless Voiceless [p] pat [t] tie [k] kill [f] fat [s] sip [T] thigh [S] dilution [tS] etch Voiced [b] bat

[d] die [g] gill [v] vat [z] zip [D] thy [Z] delusion [dZ] edge Voicing Value liquid liquid r*

* In the IPA, [r] is actually a trill like in Spanish perro. The IPA symbol for American r is [], but you can use either symbol since the text uses [r] for American r. 2) Place Place (of articulation): WHERE in the vocal tract is the constriction being made? Place Bilabial: w/ both lips

Labiodental: w/ lower lip and upper teeth [f], [v] (Inter-)dental: tip of tongue btw. the teeth [b], [p], [m], [w]

[T], [D] Alveolar: tongue tip on alveolar ridge [t], [d], [n], [l], [s], [z] Place (Alveo-)Palatal: w/ tongue at or near hard palate

Velar: w/ tongue at or near soft palate, or velum Alveopalatal: [S], [Z], [tS], [dZ] Palatal: [ j ] [k], [g], [N] Glottal: produced at the larynx

[/], [h] liquid liquid r 3) Manner Manner (of articulation): HOW is the air being modified as it moves through the vocal tract?

Manner Stop: full obstruction in oral cavity (w/ velum raised/closed) [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g], [/] Fricative: partial obstruction w/ turbulence [f], [v], [T], [D], [s], [z], [S], [Z] Affricate: stop followed by fricative

[tS], [dZ] + Manner Nasal: full obstruction in oral cavity w/ velum lowered/open Liquid: constriction but no turbulence

[m], [n], [N] [l] = lateral liquid [r] = retroflex liquid Glide: slightly more constriction than a vowel [w], [ j ] (and shows additional evidence of consonantness: patterns with consonants)

Manner liquid liquid r Practice: Provide the articulatory description [p] [m] [dZ] [j] = voiceless bilabial stop

= voiced bilabial nasal = voiced (alveo-)palatal affricate = voiced palatal glide Practice: Provide the phonetic symbol [b] = voiced bilabial stop [T] = voiceless interdental fricative [k] = voiceless velar stop http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKcoOHXw-6o From the movie My Fair Lady: What consonantal articulation was Eliza Doolittle practicing?

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