Life in the Outer Solar System - Astronomy

Life in the Outer Solar System - Astronomy

Life in the Outer Solar System Jupiter and Io Voyager 2, 1979 Io Ganymed es

shadow Cassini 4-Image Composite of Jupiter (2000 Flyby) Turbulence downwind of the Great Red Spot

Winds within the Great Red Spot circulate counterclockwise. 20,000 km Winds on the north side of the Great Red Spot flow westward.

Winds on the south side of the Great Red Spot flow eastward. Earths Diameter Infrared Image of Jupiter Zones appear dark because their highaltitude clouds are cold.

Belts appear bright because we see to warmer depths of the atmosphere. The Great Red Spot (a region of cool, highaltitude clouds) appears dark. Galileo Probe Enters

Jupiter Question There has been speculation that life could exist in a certain region of Jupiters atmosphere where the pressure and temperature are Earth-like and water droplets can exist. This hypothesis likely 1.When

the Galileo spacecraft suffers a fatal flaw. What is it? descended into Jupiters interior it detected no

evidence of water. 2.Its atmosphere is highly convective and vertical winds would soon carry any large organic molecules into regions so hot that they would be destroyed. 3.Jupiter contains no hydrogen in its atmosphere and therefore there can be no water vapor or hydrocarbons. 4.Jupiters atmosphere is much too thin and

The Galilean Satellites Orbits of the Galilean Satellites Radius (RJ): Period Io (days): 5.9 1 Europa 9.4

Ganymede15 Callisto 26.3 2 4 9.43 Voyager 1February 1979

Io Anomaly Discovery Voyager 1 March 8,1979 Whats this? an unknown moon behind Io??? No! A volcanic plume from Pele

Voyager Mosaic Image of Io Except for these areasnot seen by Voyager Galileo Composite Image 1996

Side of Io facing Jupiter Infrared Glow from Active Volcanoes Io Torus Forget

Io! 5 Million Amps of Current flows between Jupiter and Io! EuropaGalileo Image 1996

Galileo Sept 19, 2003 False Color Infrared and Visible Europa exhibits a secondary magnetic field Induced by the Jupiters magnetic field moving

through it as Jupiter rotates. Strong evidence that Europa has a subsurface, conductive liquid ocean. Triple Bands

Formed when crust fractures Ridges separate and darken Water oozes up and freezes when another fracture occurs Moving Ice on Europa Interior of

Europa Question Europa, the second Galilean moon of Jupiter, might contain simple organic life that could have evolved _________. 1) in its atmosphere 2) in its liquid ethane oceans 3) in its tidal pools 4) in the liquid water that

likely exists under its thin, cracked crust 5) nowhere on Europa --organic life is impossible SaturnVoyager 2 in 1981 Internal Structure Note: liquid

metallic hydrogen on Saturn, also. How do we know that Saturn has a larger core to overall mass ratio (10%) compared to

Saturn has lower atmospheric temperature than Jupiter. Saturn has lower g so its cloud layers are more spread out.

Saturns Satellites and Rings The Roche Limit 2.4 Planetary Radii Planetary Rings and Roche

Limit Question A planets Roche limit is ______. A.the distance beyond which matter cannot be captured by the planet B. the distance within which any solid satellite (e.g., a fragment of rock) will be pulled apart by tidal forces

C. the outer extent of the magnetic field of the planet, or the magnetospheric boundary D. the distance within which tidal forces will overcome the mutual gravitational forces that hold a large object together in a spherical shape and pull it apart into small, irregularly fragments held together primarily by molecular forces

Rhea Saturn from Voyager Well look Enceladu here s

Tita n and here Mima s Dion

Tethy s Saturn's Major Satellites Diameter Lunar UnitsPeriod (days) Name Orbital Radius Mimas 0.12

Enceladus 0.14 Tethys 0.30 Dione 0.32 Rhea 0.44 3.08 3.95 4.89

6.26 8.75 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.7 4.5 2:1

Orbital Resona nce Titan 1.48 (0.75 Mars) 20.27 15.9

Hyperion 328260214 km 24.90 21.3 Iapetus 0.42

59.08 Phoebe 230220210 km 79.3 214.84 -545.1 Encelad us

The geologically youthful terrains came as a great surprise to the scientific community, because no theory was then able to predict that such a small and cold moon compared to Jupiter's highly active moon Io) could exhibit signs of such Encelad us

Almost 100% reflective Areas where no craters Enceladus Surface Geological

resurfacing liquid interior? Ejection from Enceladus During a close flyby in 2008, Cassini's instruments sampled the plume directly and detected a surprising mix

of volatile gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, as well as organic materials. The density of organic materials was about 20 times denser than expected. The material shoots out at 800 mph forming a plume that extends hundreds of miles into space. Some

material falls back onto Enceladus, and some escapes Enceladus Orbits in E-Ring The E ring is mostly made of ice droplets, but among them are peculiar nanoparticles. Cassini detected these passing silica nanograins, which can only be generated where liquid water and rock interact at temperatures above 90 degrees Celsius (about

200 degrees F). This points to hydrothermal vents deep beneath Enceladus icy shell, not unlike the Ejection from Enceladus Enceladus is an active moon that hides a global ocean of liquid salty water beneath its crust. Jets of icy particles from that

ocean, laced with a brew of water and simple organic chemicals, gush out into space continuously from this ocean world. In 2014, NASA reported that Cassini found evidence for a large south polar subsurface ocean of liquid water with a thickness of about 10 km (6 mi). Tita n

Why so smoggy ? 2nd largest moon in Solar Systemlarger than Mercury and Pluto Interpreting Titans Spectrum Titan Haze

Blue haze caused by light scattered by atmosphere.

Titan's air is mostly nitrogen with hydrocarbons that give its These hydrocarbons are Titan the building orange hue.

blocks for amino acids necessary Chemical reactions possibly take for place the

formation of like those that on Titan that might led to life on early Earth. ESA Descent of Huygens Probe

Titans Lakes Huygens imagevisible light Cassini image infrared North Pole lakes Larger than Lake Superior

Titans River Channels and Coastline Titan might host microbial life or, at least, exhibit a complex organic chemistry with a possible subsurface liquid

ocean serving as a Ligeia Mare Based on Cassinis gravitational measurementsTitan very likely has a subsurface liquid water ocean. Could be habitable when Sun turns red

Question If interplanetary travel were possible, how would a company in the business advertise a A. on The Titan? largest number of volcanoes holiday for your travel dollar anywhere in

the solar system! B. Exquisite methane/ethane lakes, hydrocarbons beyond your wildest dreams! C. Glaciers galore for your hiking pleasure under star-studded skies! D. Hot and drynever rains Exposing Titans

Surface If you want to see this on your own time go to Titan/index.html

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