LEVELS OF LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS PROF. NITIN DOKE DEPTT. OF ENGLISH [email protected] 9421296860 INTRODUCTION For Language study, areas are marked and subdivided it helps in analytic & systematic study
Language has linear and hierarchical structure Language is made up of smaller units which are made up of still smaller units & finally smallest indivisible unit single distinguishable sound called phoneme INTRODUCTION (CONTD..) Other way round also possible Phonemes combine to make up morphemes which combine to make up words which combine to make up phrases and sentences
.. Text or discourse At each stage (or level) certain rules operate which permit occurrence and combination of smaller units RULES? (CONVENTIONS) Rules of phonology determine occurrence and combination of particular phonemes (sp/pl/pr/sk/sl )
Rules for word formation behaviour of morphemes (unfaithfully) Rules of sentence formation combination & positioning of words in a sentence RULES? (CONVENTIONS) Because of rules at each level, we can analyse each level independently of the other
Although each level is linked to the other in hierarchy, still it is independent because of distinct rules that can be described, analyzed and understood. Each level of analysis corresponds to each level of the structure of language LEVELS Levels of Analysis Phonetics & Phonology Morphology Syntax formation Semantics Pragmatics(Discourse) sentences in
Levels of structure Sounds Word formation sentence Meanings Connected context LEVELS OF LANGUAGE LINKED
Levels of language are not completely separate, important & vital linkages are present Earlier thought Phonology had no link with semantics Now we know Link much more complex than thought earlier e.g discourse made up of all levels working together, Semantics has analysis both at words & sentence meaning LEVELS (BRIEF DESCRIPTION)
Phonetics: Phonetics explores how the linguistically relevant sounds in the languages of the world are produced, and how these sounds are perceived Studies language at the level of sounds: articulated by the human speech mechanism & received by auditory mechanism Articulatory/ Auditory/ Acoustic Phonetics Minimal distinctive contrastive unit of speechPhoneme PHONETICS (CONTD..) It studies how sounds can be distinguished and characterized by the
manner in which they are produced It also talks about different symbols (phonetic symbols) used for different sounds / alphabets PHONOLOGY Phonology: Phonology examines how sounds pattern in languages, how sounds are combined to make words, how sounds near each other affect
each other and how sounds are affected by where in the word/phrase they occur. (comfort/ wind mill/ good girl) Studies the formation of syllables and larger units PHONOLOGY (CONTD..) It studies combination of sounds into organized units of speech, the formation of syllable and larger units. It describes the sound system of a
particular language & the combination and distribution of sounds which occur in that language. PHONOLOGY (CONTD..) Classification is made on the basis of the concept of phoneme i.e /m/, /g/,/p/. These distinct sounds enter into combination with others rules of combination are different in different languages MORPHOLOGY
Morphology: Morphology examines the structure of words and the principles that govern the formation of words. Words also made up of a number of units, the word unhappiness involves three elements (or morphemes) un-, -happy- and ness. Morphology deals with how languages add morphemes together. Morpheme- minimal, distinctive and grammatical/semantical unit MORPHOLOGY (CONTD..)
It studies the patterns of formation of words by combination of sounds into minimal distinctive units of meaning called morphemes Morpheme cannot be broken it will no longer make sense e.g bat (single morpheme) Single morpheme bat or two morphemes bat +s
Morpheme- Prefix, suffix (Inflectional/ Derivational) (class changing/ class maintaining) MORPHOLOGY (CONTD..) Level of morphology is related to phonology on the one hand and to semantics on the other take took (change in one of the sounds) take the action take + time present change took the action take + time past in
meaning SYNTAX (STRUCTURE) Syntax: Syntax investigates the structure of sentences and the common principles that determine how phrases and sentences are built up from words. Linearity and hierarchy clearly visible here It also explores the way that languages vary in
their application of these common principles by looking at the variation across languages. SVO/ SOV SYNTAX (CONTD..) Syntax describes the rules of positioning of elements in a sentence Noun /nouns syntax phrases, verb/verb phrases, adverbial phrases
Syntax also describes the function of elements in a sentence e.g Noun boy has different functions / roles in (a) & (b) (a) The boy likes cricket. (b) The old man loved the boy. (a) Sprinkle water on the plants (b) I watered the plants SYNTAX (CONTD..) Rules of syntax should explain how grammatical & meaningful sentences are formed. e.g. Colourless green ideas sleep furiously (meaningless) The tree ate an elephant The bachelor gave birth to six children Ambiguity: Time flies
She gave her dog biscuits He kissed her back SEMANTICS Semantics studies the meanings of words and sentences independently of any context. It is a factual/ surface level study of meaning Semantics seeks to explain how it is that we
come to have such a clear understanding of the language we use. It analyses the structure of meaning in language. SEMANTICS (CONTD..) Example: Semantics analyzes how words similar and different are related; it attempts to show these interrelationships through forming categories. Synonym/ antonym/ Homonym/ Homophone It attempts to analyze and define abstract words. Example: easy to define tree, table difficult to define love, feel Ambiguity: They must be married The priest married the poor girl The dish is too hot to eat
PRAGMATICS Level of language analysis that studies meaning in context (Semantics doesn't) Our language use is guided by who, whom, when, where, why, how Death Shut up/ be quite/would you please be quiet/would you
please keep your voice down One of the most influential brains, David Crystal, states, "Pragmatics is the study of language from the point of view of users, especially of the choices they make, the constraints they encounter in using language in social interaction and the effects their use of language has on other participants in the act of communication" PRAGMATICS Pragmatics can be usefully defined as the study of how utterances have
meanings in situations. (Leech, 1983:13) Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said. (Yule, 1996:3) Mey (2001:6) states, Pragmatics studies the use of language in human communication as determined by the PRAGMATICS According to George Yule (1996:3) Pragmatics is concerned with the following four areas: a) Pragmatics studies speaker meaning: b)Pragmatic studies contextual meaning:
c) Pragmatic studies how more gets communicated than what is said: d) Pragmatic studies relative distance: Speech Act/ Implicature/ Face/ Politeness
Man: Does your dog bite? Woman: No. [The man reaches down to the pet the dog. The dog bites the mans hand] Man: Ouch! Hey! You said your dog doesnt bite. Women: He doesnt. But thats not my dog.
Sally: Whats the weather going to be like today? Harold: You should bring your umbrella. A: I am out of petrol B: There is a garage round the corner A: Smith doesnt seem to have a girl friend these days. B: He has been paying a lot of visit to New York lately.
A:Lets get the kids something. B: Okay, but I also Veto I-C-E-C-R-E-A-MS a. Miss X sang Home sweet Home. b. Miss X produced a series of sounds that corresponded closely with the score of Home sweet home DISCOURSE
Discourse: a unit of text used by linguists for the analysis of linguistic phenomena that range over more than one sentence. formal and orderly and usually extended expression of thought on a subject connected speech or writing a linguistic unit (as a conversation or a story) larger than a sentence DISCOURSE (CONTD..)
At discourse level we analyze inter-sentential links that form a connected or cohesive text. Cohesion relation formed in a sentence between it and the sentences before it and after it, by using connectives By this study we can know how a piece of connected language can have greater meaning that is more than the sum of the individual sentences SOME OTHER STUDIES
Graphology: study of the writing system of the language and conventions used in representing speech in writing formation of letters Lexicology: studies the manner in which lexical items are grouped together as in compilation of dictionaries TWO VIEWS ABOUT SCOPE Micro-linguistic: Study confined to phonology, morphology and syntax
Macro-linguistic: Other aspects of language and its relationship with many areas of human activity THANK YOU
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