Key Concepts for your KC Period GuidesPeriod 1 The Grid things Key Concepts Grid Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformation (to C. 600 B.C.E.) 1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth 1.2 The Neolithic
Revolution and early agricultural societies 1.3 The development and interactions of early agricultural, pastoral, and urban societies Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies (c. 600 B.C.E. to C. 600 C.E.)
Period 3: Regional and Interregional Interactions (c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450) Period 4: Global Interactions (c. 1450 to c. 1750) Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration (c. 1750 to c. 1900)
Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments (c. 1900 to the Present) 3.1 Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks. 2.2 The development 3.2 Continuity and of states and empires innovation of state forms and their
interactions. 4.1 Globalizing networks of communication and exchange. 5.1 Industrialization and global capitalism. 6.1 Science and the environment. 4.2 New forms of social organization
and modes of production. 5.2 Imperialism and nation-state formation. 6.2 Global conflicts and their consequences. 2.3 The emergence of trans-regional networks of communication and exchange.
4.3 State consolidation and imperial expansion. 5.3 Nationalism, revolution, and reform. 6.3 New conceptualizations of global economy, society, and culture. 2.1 The development and codification of religious and
cultural traditions 3.3 Increased economic productive capacity and its consequences. 5.4 Global migration. KC 1.1: Archeological evidence indicates that during the Paleolithic era, hunting-foraging bands of humans gradually migrated from their origin in East Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americans, adapting their technology and cultures to new climate regions
1.1.IA: fire- sterilized and made food; provided warmth; protection; allowed migration to colder areas (allowed more adaptation to different climates); adapted to surroundings vs. surroundings adapting to them; meat consumption led to tool use (bones) Harnessing use of fire from Mankind the Story of Us KC 1.1: Archeological evidence indicates that during the Paleolithic era, hunting-foraging bands of humans gradually migrated from their origin in East Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americans, adapting their technology and cultures to new climate regions 1.1.IB: nomadic (small groups based on family); would marry off their own to other groups to create new trading partners; relatively equal in genders; no material possessions, or at
least very little; lots of leisure time to come up with some art and begin thinking of religion; leaders would arise when necessary, but no full time leaders A branch of agriculturecalled pastoralismbegan around the same time as cultivation of plants. Pastoralism is the domestication and herding of animals such as goats, sheep, and cattle. KC 1.2.I: Beginning about 100,000 ago, the Neolithic Revolution led to the development of more complex economic and social system 1.2.IA: NEAR WATER (RIVER VALLEYS) Mesopotamia, Nile, Sub-Saharan Africa, Indus River, Yellow/Huang He River) 1.2.IB: rice, barley, wheat and corn (maize), potatoes, cattle, goats, dogs 1.2.IC: herding animals and followed them; overgrazing an area when settling, which led to erosion
1.2.ID: clear land and manipulate environment- irrigation (water wells); pottery for storage, plows, textiles, metallurgy, wheeled vehicles; more cooperation; would get crops from other areas and trade and led to more erosion KC 1.2.II: Agriculture and pastoralism began to transform human societies 1.2.IIA: increase in population, specialization of labor (artisans and warriors and elites), new classes/stratification (hierarchies, classes and castes, wealthy, and patriarchy); more stability, follow seasons of planting, dependence on nature led to religions based on nature (worshipped reproduction and fertility); more people; surpluses of food>> who gets the extra?>>> inequality 1.2.IIB: Pottery, Plows, Woven Textiles, Wheels and Wheeled Vehicles, Metallurgy 1.2.IIC: warriors were important (first militaries) and were probably nomads like the Mongols of Central Asia; men became leaders, but
no ones really sure of an exact answer why a patriarch formed KC 1.3.I: What core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished? Describe them 1.3.I: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, Shang, Zhou, Olmec, Chavin Large powerful states, agricultural surpluses>>specialization; had religion, armies, etc.; traded with other areas; war and wealth went hand in hand KC 1.3.II: The first states emerged within core civilizations in Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley 1.3.IIA: leaders gained support from religion (divine right) and also relied on support of military, religious or aristocratic
elites 1.3.IIB: -bronze (better tools, more agr); iron (better), food; growing pops. Hittites- first to use iron 1.3.IIC: Composite bows; Iron Weapons; Chariots, Horseback riding KC 1.3.III: Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art 1.3.IIIA: Ziggurats; Pyramids; Temples; Defensive walls ; Streets and roads; Sewage and water systems 1.3.IIIB: - Cuneiform; Hieroglyphs; Pictographs; Alphabets; quipu (makes it easier to create laws, record business transactions, keep records, pictures made it easy for an illiterate public to read important things, 1.3.IIIC: Code of Hammurabi (Babylonia) (reinforced social
and gender roles; look at adultery, treatment of slaves, harshness of punishments based on wealth and class; KC 1.3.III: Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art 1.3.IIID: Vedic- Aryans crossed into Pakistan and India; had religious hymns known as the Vedas; sacrificed cows and other animals; created the caste system; contemplated the meaning of life; teachings- Upanishads (karma, reincarnation, leads to Hinduism) -Judaism/Hebrew Monotheism- Abraham (orig. from Mesopotamia); monotheistic- all others are false gods; obvi leads to Christianity and Islam; God (Yahweh) is personal and directly interacts with humans; Abraham has 2 sons (Isaac and Ishmael) -Zoroastrianism- Persia (before Islam); good God vs. evil God,
but good God will win; Zarathrustra talked about final judgment, KC 1.3.III: Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art 1.3.IIIE: Trade between Egypt and Nubia (ivory, gold, slaves, cultural ideas, hieroglyphs, pyramids, religion) Trade between Mesopotamia and Indus Valley (metals, stones, textiles, grain, pots, pearls) 1.3.IIIF: more social classes; patriarchy prevails due to religion, laws, and customs
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