Jot2 - Learning Theories

Jot2 - Learning Theories

JOT2 LEARNING THEORIES Natalie Portillo Task A: Learning Theories & Learners Constructivism: To Build Knowledge Cognitivism: To Organize Knowledge Behaviorism: To Acquire Knowledge When Constructivism is Beneficial for Learners Collaborative Learning Groups

Group Discussions Hands-On Learning Research & Experiments When Cognitivism is Beneficial for Learners Problem Solving Reasoning Modeled & Guided Learning Scaffolding When Behaviorism is Beneficial for Learners

Teacher Directed Learning Drill & Practice Positive Reinforcement Classroom Management Basic Skills Task B: Learning Theory Used in Lesson Plan Constructivist Lesson Plan 2nd Grade Learning Theory Lesson Plan Constructivist Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan Title: The Water Cycle Topic: The Water Cycle and how each part is important to Earths survival Teacher Name: Jennifer Staten Grade: 2nd grade It engages the students previous knowledge by taking what they already and know and builds on it though internet research. It allows students to explore what they are learning by providing them with opportunities

to investigate authentic sources and also time to think, plan and organize what they have learned, so that it can later be turned into a poem. It gives students the opportunity to explain what they have learned by having them interpret the information into a poem and then later discuss it together as a class. It provides students the opportunity to elaborate on their learning by having students read their poems aloud to the classroom. Students will be reading, as well as listening to the poems and will then be providing feedback to each other.

Task C: Adaptation of Lesson Plan Behaviorist Lesson Plan Adaptation Lesson Plan Behaviorist Lesson Plan Lesson Plan Title: The Water Cycle Topic: The Water Cycle and how each part is important to Earths survival Teacher Name: Natalie Portillo (Jennifer Staten-Original Author) Grade: 2nd grade A large Water Cycle Poster, that is color coded and labeled, will be placed at the

front of the class and students will be given a handout of a blank Water Cycle that will need to be correctly labeled and filled in. Students will be given True/ False and Multiple Choice Worksheets to complete about the Water Cycle Students will use Flash cards to practice learning the Water Cycle and the proper verbiage. A Water Cycle Pre-test will be given and positive feedback will be used to help reinforce the correct answers Task D: Lesson Plan Discussion Constructivist Lesson Plan vs. Behaviorist Lesson Plan

The Constructivist Lesson Plan I believe that the Constructivist version of the lesson plan is the most beneficial for the instructional setting of this lesson. Learning is achieved through real and meaningful experiences. Having the students discover the answers on their own, puts them in charge of their learning and makes the learning have genuine meaning and hold value. Students are also learning at a young age how to search for answers and interpret the information into ways that they understand and can share with others.

Task E: Effective Instruction Through the Use of Design Theories Instructional Design Theory: A study of how to create and design instruction so that learning is able to take place. Instructional Design Theory Theories of design can help to adapt or produce effective instruction through analysis, and identification of specific skills and knowledge, that are needed to bring about a desired end result. The target audience is first identified and an analysis is done to

determine what skills the learner already has and what they need to know. Then instructional goals and objectives are created to establish an instructional plan and media are chosen. An assessment is then done to ensure that instruction is effective and is then implemented. Instructional Design Theory helps to create real and meaningful learning and improves the overall performance outcomes. Gagnes Nine events of Instruction The 9-step set of instructional guidelines are used to assist instructors in creating a positive learning environment that promotes optimal learning opportunities for the students. Task F: Design Theories Strengths and Limitations:

Wiggins: Backward Design Gagne: Nine Events of Instruction Teaching for Understand (The Harvard model) Strengths of Wiggins Theory Wiggins Theory of Backwards Design mean that the instruction is designed with the end results in mind. It is a great way to help ensure that goals and objectives are aligned with the end results. Helps to prevent getting side tracked with activities and distractions that take away from the primary

goal. When the focus is more on results than that of the actual process. Limitations of Wiggins Wiggins Theory of Backwards Design mean that the instruction is designed with the end results in mind. Creating instruction using this design is very time

consuming Lesson plans rarely go exactly as planned, so creating a lesson based on desired end results, may render a useless instruction plan half way through a lesson. Since lesson plans rarely ever go as planned, so instruction may need to be edited depending on the assessment s or time constraints. It is more of a focus on results, than it is on the process used to get there.

Strengths of Gagnes Events Gagnes Theory: Nine Events of Instruction is a step by step approach to an optimal learning outcome This is a great step by step outline for creating lessons. The 9 steps of instruction help to ensure that all important aspects of the learning process are included in the lesson Process oriented model Retention and transfer of the learned information

creates authentic learning that lasts The learners are able to achieve mastery of a level before moving on to another next level. Limitations of Gagnes Events Gagnes Theory: Nine Events of Instruction is a step by step approach to an optimal learning outcome The focus is more on the process, than the actual

results of the instruction. The 9 steps does not include a step for planning. The process may feel long and time consuming because of the 9 steps involved in the process. Goals are not very easily classified as learning outcomes. The repetition of the model may not be suited to all types of learners.

Strengths of Teaching for Understanding Teaching for Understanding is a guide that focuses on educational practices of developing understanding High focus of interdisciplinary units, such as the Common Core

Standards. Knowledge obtained using this method creates learners who are able to apply said knowledge to other areas of learning Learners poses a greater understanding of the content The design theory closely resembles differentiated instruction and uses similar ideas of Blooms Taxonomy of multiple intelligences. 6 Strategies to assist in using the Teaching for Understanding Design Theory Weaknesses of Teaching for Understanding Teaching for Understanding is a guide that focuses on educational practices of developing understanding

Incorporating different disciplines is difficult at the secondary levels. The incorporation of different disciplines at a secondary level can be very time consuming and may not fit within the specific time constraints. Can become difficult if the learner is given incorrect ideas to try and understand. Teachers need to look at the big picture and figure out end of course skills and concepts at the beginning.

Task G: Most Suitable Design Process Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction Gagnes 9 Events of Instruction I believe that the most effective design process for the instructional setting of the lesson I have chosen is Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction. For what I would be teaching and the unique learner population, the 9 steps model is best suited for the 2nd grade lesson plan of the Water Cycle. Using

the computers to do research is a great way to catch the students attention and get them interested in the lesson. The students are told in the beginning what they will be doing and what is expected of them, at the end of the lesson. The Retrieval of information is used after the students have done all their research and are then writing their poems. Learning is guided by having students only able to access specific websites, so information is specific and all students would have access to the same information. It is also guided by having students know what the final outcome should be and what they would need to do at each step of the Water Cycle lesson. Student responding would be the poems that the students would be writing and the reinforcement would be when the poems are read aloud and student to student feedback is provided. Retrieval and Generalization would also be part of the end of the lesson where students are doing a

review of their research, reading their poems aloud, offering feedback and participating in a classroom discussion to wrap up the lesson. Works Cited Staten, Jennifer. "Constructivist Lesson Form." JStatenFinalProject. N.p., 5 Dec. 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2014. .

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