1 of 7 Boardworks Ltd 2009 What is ionization energy? Ionization is a process in which atoms lose or gain electrons and become ions. The first ionization (I1) energy of an element is the energy required to remove one electron from a gaseous atom. M(g) M+(g) + e-(g) The second ionization (I2) energy involves the removal of a second electron: M+(g) M2+(g) + e-(g) Looking at trends in ionization energies can reveal useful evidence for the arrangement of electrons in atoms and ions. 2 of 7 Boardworks Ltd 2009
Definitions of ionization energy 3 of 7 Boardworks Ltd 2009 Plotting the successive ionization energies of magnesium clearly shows the existence of different energy levels, and the number of electrons at each level. 6 Successive ionization energies increase as more 5 electrons are removed. 4 3
ionization energy Evidence for energy levels Large jumps in the ionization energy reveal where electrons are being removed from the next principal energy level, such as between the 2nd and 3rd, and 10th and 11th ionization energies for magnesium. electron removed 4 of 7 Boardworks Ltd 2009
More evidence for energy levels first ionization energy (kJ mol-1) The first ionization energies of group 2 elements also show evidence for the existence of different principal energy levels. Even though the nuclear charge increases down the group, the first ionization energy decreases. 900 800 700 600
500 400 Be 5 of 7 Mg Ca Sr element This means that electrons are being removed from successively higher energy levels, which lie further from the nucleus and are less attracted to
Ba the nucleus. Boardworks Ltd 2009 Trends in first ionization energies 6 of 7 Boardworks Ltd 2009 Energy levels 7 of 7 Boardworks Ltd 2009
It is expected that LTE-A and the so called 4.5G will be the most popular MBB access points. A HD level mobile video . quality is expected for mobile video services. ... PPT 模板库 4.0 Last modified by: c00122519 Company:
History of improvement efforts ... Complement and draw in existing technical assistance materials. Help Head Start and Early Head Start programs: Understand how data can help them. Foster a culture of learning. Increase ability to continuously improve quality.
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Data dictionary entries Object models Natural ways of reflecting the real-world entities manipulated by the system More abstract entities are more difficult to model using this approach Object class identification is recognised as a difficult process requiring a deep understanding...
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