Introduction to Poetry English Language Arts A9 Advanced Placement Characteristics of Poetry Concise: They are usually shorter than prose, so words must be carefully chosen and used. They express strong thoughts or emotions. They are not bound by regular conventions of writing Punctuation, capitalization, indentation, sentence structure, etc. Some types of poems have rules of structure - sonnet, limerick, ballad, etc. A "paragraph" in a poem is called a "stanza".
They often rely on figurative language to communicate thoughts and emotions - Figurative language is the contrast to literal language. Often make use of rhythm and rhyme. Understanding Poetry Read Slowly. Drift with the flow of the poets pace. Read Aloud. Let the poet speak to you with the inflection and tone of your own voice. Listen to yourself. Read Kindly. Try to get the words to rhyme, the meter to beat and the emotions to emerge. Read in the way you would like that poet to read your work. Read with an Open Mind. If you feel inclined to disagree with
the poet, remember that you have to understand exactly what you disagree with in order to refute it. Dont paddle upstream trying to get the poet to say what you would say or the way you would say it. Remember that this poem has already been written. You cant change it. If you disagree with it, write your own poem. Remember that you can appreciate the expression even when you disagree with the thought. Reread, Several Times. Be patient. Basically, reading is the key. Identifying Figures of Speech
When we use language, sometimes we want the language to mean exactly what they say. This is called literal language. Other times, the words create an image to suggest an idea. This is called figurative language. For example: Literal: I cant find the remote control. Figurative: My mind is oatmeal. Identifying Figures of Speech Identifying Figures of Speech Alliteration
- the repetition of an initial (beginning) sound in a series of consecutive or neighbouring words. EXAMPLE: The boy bounced the basketball backwards. Allusion - a reference in literature to something the writer expects us to know (historical, biblical, mythological, etc.).
EXAMPLE: Was the ticking package, wrapped with ribbon and bright paper, a Trojan gift? Identifying Figures of Speech Assonance repetition of vowel sounds usually accompanied by unlike consonant sounds. EXAMPLE: Sounding like an overtone,
from some lonely world unknown. Euphemism - a term substituted for one which may be harsh or offensive, to make it less harsh. EXAMPLE: Passed away died. Identifying Figures of Speech
Hyperbole an extreme or clearly intended exaggeration; a conscious overstatement to create a desired effect. EXAMPLE: I have a million things to do today. Imagery - the use of descriptive, picturemaking words to create mental pictures. Visual seeing, Auditory hearing, Gustatory taste, Olfactory smell, Tactile touch, Kinesthetic sensation of movement, balance or muscular tension.
Identifying Figures of Speech Irony a mode of expression in which the intended meaning is the opposite of what is stated, often implying ridicule or light sarcasm; when what happens is opposite to what is expected. EXAMPLE: A dentist getting a cavity. Metaphor
- A direct comparison of two things without the use of like or as. EXAMPLE: Life's but a walking shadow; a poor player, That struts and frets his hour upon the stage. Identifying Figures of Speech Onomatopoeia - a word that imitates a sound and suggests meaning.
EXAMPLE: The car hissed by on the wet street. Personification when concrete objects such as things, places, or animals take on human characteristics -- attributes of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on. Ideas and abstractions can also be personified. EXAMPLE: The wind whistled outside my door.
Identifying Figures of Speech Repetition - duplication of words, lines, or stanzas to achieve an effect. EXAMPLE: Somewhere ages and ages hence. Simile - a direct comparison between two unlike things using "like" or "as".
EXAMPLE: She ran like the wind. Symbol a person, place or thing used to represent a greater truth. EXAMPLE: Dove peace. Identifying Figures of Speech Remember that
when a writer uses literal language, words mean exactly what they say. When using figurative language, words create an image or suggest an idea. Now you try Please identify if the following statements are literal or figurative.
My cell phone went off in class three times. My cell phone rang a million times in class today. My ringing phone caused Mr. H. to lose his mind. After the Terry Fox run, my legs were Jello. My backpack is heavier than ten pianos. My neighbour plays their music too loud.
He was depressed after he broke up with Jill. Miller won a provincial championship! The mirror is trying to ruin my day. Now you try Please identify if the following statements are literal or figurative.
Mr. Hambleton is the Albert Einstein of teaching. If I skip Social Studies, my dad will cut off my head. Tim is the most talented basketball player here. I could eat ten thousand doughnuts. I dont want to room with him. Hes a fog horn. Spider-man was set in New York. So how did you do? Did you all give it 110%? Poetic Terminology Note: You do not need to know all this. It will be used solely as a
reference point. Stanza a group of lines of poetry arranged according to a fixed plan. Usually contain the same number of lines, meter, and rhyme scheme. Simply put it is a paragraph of poetry. Common Stanza forms: Couplet 2 lines Triplets or tercets 3 lines Quatrains four lines Sestet six lines Octave eight lines Poetic Terminology Denotation:
The literal meaning of a word the meaning you would find in a dictionary. Connotation: The emotional meaning of a wordthe deeper meaning a word is being used to represent. For example, house and home are literally very similar, but their connotations are very different. A house is just a building, while a home is the place you belong and where your family is. Home has a different emotional effect than house does. Types of Poetry Narrative Poetry the poem tells a story (has
setting, characters, plot, resolution, and a strong theme). Ballad a narrative poem with a song-like form that usually tells a love story, historical event, or heroic tale. Lengthy. Usually told in third person. Discusses a single incident. Legend long narrative poem used to explain the existence of something. Usually based on real people or places. Has a mythical quality. Types of Poetry Lyrical Poetry a form of poetry that expresses powerful emotions and personal feelings. Free Verse a form of modern poem that does not
follow a set rhythm. Sonnet a fourteen line poem that usually follows a set rhyme scheme and rhythm. Two popular forms. Shakespearean Sonnet 14 lines made up of 3 quatrains and 1 couplet; rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg. Petrarchan/Italian Sonnet 14 lines made up of 1 octave and 1 sestet. Types of Poetry
Ode a poem dedicated to praising the value or virtue of something. Elegy a poem that laments the loss of someone or something. Haiku Japanese poetic form that consists of three lines and a total of 17 syllables, 5-7-5. Focuses on nature. Often captures a moment in time/nature. Types of Poetry Limerick a kind of humourous verse of five
lines, in which the first, second, and fifth lines rhyme with each other, and the third and fourth lines, which are shorter, form a rhymed couplet. Concrete a poem whose shape or visual appearance contributes to its meaning. Descriptive Poetry uses memorable descriptions to appeal directly to our senses. These poems engage our minds, hearts and imaginations. Haiku Humour Types of Rhyme
Rhyme the repetition of the same sound in different words. Rhyme Scheme the pattern of end rhymes used in a poem. Usually indicated by letters (eg. Abba, bcbc, de,de). End Rhyme rhyme that occurs at the end of lines. Ex. A speak that would have been beneath my sight/On any but a paper sheet so white. Types of Rhyme Internal
rhyme the rhyming of two or more words within a single line of poetry. Ex. The deep cut, rough and angles seeped into his grin. Exact rhyme also called a full rhyme, perfect rhyme, or true rhyme is when the later part of the word or phrase is identical sounding to another. Types of Rhyme Imperfect rhyme - rhyme in which either the vowels or the consonants of stressed
syllables are identical, as in eyes, light; years, yours. Also called half rhyme, slant rhyme, near rhyme. Rhyming couplet: Two successive lines of poetry that will rhyme and commonly have the same meter (open cannot stand alone; closed can stand on its own). Words to Know About Rhythm Rhythm the pattern of beats (accented and unaccented, or stressed and unstressed syllables) in a line of a poem. Rhythm is usually created through repetition of a particular pattern, and gives many poems a musical quality. Foot (plural feet) a group of syllables forming a metrical
unit; contains one stressed syllable and one or two unstressed syllables; a long diagonal ( / ) is used to show the end of each foot. Poetic metre the rhythmic structure of the poem the way it sounds when read aloud. The rhythmical pattern resulting from the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables; several syllables are linked together in groups called feet; a line of poetry is usually made up of several feet. Words to Know About Rhythm Blank verse: Blank verse is a form of poetry that does not rhyme, but has a regular meter. Each line has the same (or close to the same) rhythm of stressed and
unstressed syllables and words. A popular meter used in blank verse is iambic pentameter. Iambic pentameter: A specific poetic meter. A line of iambic pentameter has exactly ten syllables, and the first syllable is unstressed. The line follows this pattern: unstressed, stressed, unstressed, stressed, etc. Here is an example by Shakespeare, with the stressed syllables in bold: Shall I compare thee to a summers day? Common Metres Monometre 1 foot/line
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