Introduction to Physiology: The Cell and General Physiology

Introduction to Physiology: The Cell and General Physiology

Abnormal Sinus Rhythms Tachycardia means a fast heart rate usually greater than 100 beats /min. Figure 13-1; Guyton & Hall Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. Abnormal Sinus Rhythms (contd) Bradycardia means a slow heart rate usually less than 60 beats /min

Figure 13-2: Guyton & Hall Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. Sinoatrial Block In rare instances impulses from S-A node are blocked. New pacemaker is region of heart with the

fastest discharge rate, usually the A-V node. Note: no P waves and slow rate Figure 13-4; Guyton & Hall Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. First Degree Heart Block AV Node

SA Node Delay Prolonged P-R Interval Prolonged P-R Interval

Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. Second Degree Heart Block AV Node SA Node

Intermittent Block Blocked Conducted Conducted Blocked

Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. Third Degree Complete Block Total block through the A-V node or A-V bundle P waves are completely dissociated from QRST complexes Ventricles escape and A-V nodal rhythm ensues

HR = 37 Figure 13-7; Guyton & Hall Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. Premature Atrial Contractions Figure 13-9; Guyton & Hall Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc.

(contd) Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs) Figure 13-3; Guyton & Hall Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc.

Atrial Paroxysmal Tachycardia Paroxysmal means a series of rapid heart beats suddenly start and then suddenly stop. Can be stopped with a vagal reflex or quinidine or procainimide P wave is inverted if origin is near A-V node Occurs by re-entrant pathways Figure 13-12; Guyton & Hall

Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. Ventricular Paroxysmal Tachycardia Usually does not occur unless there has been ischemic damage Quinidine increases refractory period of cardiac muscle and can eliminate the problem Figure 13-13; Guyton & Hall

Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. Atrial Fibrillation Figure 13-19; Guyton & Hall Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. Atrial Flutter

Figure 13-20; Guyton & Hall Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc. Ventricular Fibrillation Copyright 2006 by Elsevier, Inc.

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