Introduction - East Carolina University

Introduction - East Carolina University

ELEVENTH EDITION ELECTRONIC COMMERCE GARY P. SCHNEIDER Chapter 8 Web Server Hardware and Software Cengage Learning 2015 Learning Objectives In this chapter, you will learn: How a Web server performs its basic functions What operating system and server software is used

on Web servers How to identify and manage e-mail and spam control issues How commonly used Internet and Web site utility programs work What hardware online businesses use to power their Web sites Cengage Learning 2015 2 Introduction Case study: Apache Web server Originated around 1994 at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications

Came about by patching existing software to make improvements Open source software Dominant Web server software since 1996 Most successful open-source software of all time Cengage Learning 2015 3 Web Server Basics Client/server architectures Used in LANs, WANs, and the Web Client requests server services

Servers More memory and larger, faster disk drives Web browser: a type of Web client software Platform neutrality Ability of a network to connect devices that use different operating systems Critical in rapid spread, widespread Web acceptance Cengage Learning 2015 4 FIGURE 8-1 Platform neutrality of the Web Cengage Learning 2015

Cengage Learning 2015 5 Web Server Basics (contd.) A Web servers main job Respond to Web client requests Main elements Hardware, operating system software, and Web server software Considerations for hardware and software selection

Number of site visitors expected Number of pages viewed during an average visit Size of pages Maximum number of simultaneous visitors Cengage Learning 2015 6 Dynamic Content Generation Dynamic page Content shaped in response to user request

Static page Unchanging page retrieved from Web server file(s) Dynamic content Customized pages Gives user an interactive experience Can be generated using client-side or server-side scripting Cengage Learning 2015 7 Dynamic Content Generation (contd.)

Client-side scripting Software operates on the Web client (browser) Software changes Web page display in response to a users actions Software examples: JavaScript or Adobe Flash Server-side scripting Program runs on a Web server Program creates Web page in response to request for specific information from a Web client Cengage Learning 2015 8

Dynamic Content Generation (contd.) Dynamic page generation technologies Server-side scripts mixed with HTML-tagged text Examples Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP): ASP.NET Sun Microsystems JavaServer Pages (JSP): Java servlets Apache Software Foundation Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) Adobe ColdFusion Server-side languages generally use Common Gateway Interface (CGI) Cengage Learning 2015

9 Dynamic Content Generation (contd.) Dynamic page generation technologies (contd.) AJAX (asynchronous JavaScript and XML) Creates interactive Web sites that look like applications Example: Google Maps Ruby on Rails Scala Python (scripting language) Cengage Learning 2015 10

Multiple Meanings of Server Server Computer providing files, making programs available to other computers connected to it through a network Server software Makes files and programs available May be part of the operating system (OS) Server OS software may be referred to as server software (confusing) May connect through a router to the Internet Run Web server software Cengage Learning 2015

11 Multiple Meanings of Server (contd.) Web server Computer connected to the Internet Runs Web server software Makes servers files available to other computers E-mail server: handles incoming and outgoing email Database server Runs database management software Transaction server Runs accounting and inventory management software

Cengage Learning 2015 12 Multiple Meanings of Server (contd.) Server describes several types of computer hardware and software Context needed to determine the intended meaning Cengage Learning 2015 13 Web Client/Server Architectures Web browser requests files from Web server

Transportation medium: the Internet Request formatted by browser using HTTP Request sent to server computer Server receives request Retrieves file containing requested Web page Formats using HTTP Sends back to client over the Internet Client Web browser software Displays page on client machine

Cengage Learning 2015 14 Web Client/Server Architectures (contd.) Repeating process Client requests; server responds; client displays result Possible result Dozens or even hundreds of separate server responses Graphics and other objects may be slow to appear

Each page element is a separate request Two-tier client/server architecture One client and one server computer Create and read messages Cengage Learning 2015 15 FIGURE 8-2 Message flows in a two-tier client/server network Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 16

Web Client/Server Architectures (contd.) Request message Web client message sent to request file(s) from a Web server Three major parts Request line: contains command, target resource name, protocol name, version number Optional request headers: file type information client accepts Optional entity body: passes bulk information to server Cengage Learning 2015

17 Web Client/Server Architectures (contd.) Server receiving request message executes command included in message Retrieves Web page file from disk Creates response message: sent back to client Identical in structure to request message (slightly different function) Response header line: server HTTP version, response status, status information explanation Response header field: information describing servers attributes Entity body: returns HTML page requested

Cengage Learning 2015 18 Web Client/Server Architectures (contd.) Three-tier architecture Allows additional processing before server responds to clients request Often includes databases and related software applications Supplies information to the Web server Web server uses software applications output when responding to client requests

Cengage Learning 2015 19 FIGURE 8-3 Message flows in a three-tier client/server network Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 20 Web Client/Server Architectures (contd.) N-tier architectures

More than three tiers Example functions: Track customer purchases stored in shopping carts Look up sales tax rates Keep track of customer preferences Update in-stock inventory databases Keep product catalog current Cengage Learning 2015

21 Software for Web Servers Web server software may: Run on one or several computer operating systems Section topics Learn about operating system software used on most Web servers Learn about Web server software itself Learn about other programs Running on Web servers or other computers as part of electronic commerce operations

Cengage Learning 2015 22 Operating Systems for Web Servers Operating system tasks Running programs, allocating computer resources, providing input and output services Larger system responsibilities Tracking multiple users, ensuring no interference Web server operating systems software Microsoft Windows Server products Linux UNIX-based operating systems

Example: FreeBSD Cengage Learning 2015 23 Operating Systems for Web Servers (contd.) Microsoft server products Considered simple to learn and use Linux

Open-source More secure Fast, efficient, and easy to install Can be downloaded free from the Web Most companies buy it through a commercial distributor Includes additional utilities, support Cengage Learning 2015 24 Operating Systems for Web Servers

(contd.) Linux (contd.) Commercial Linux examples: Mandriva, Red Hat, SuSE Linux Enterprise UNIX-based operating system Solaris Cengage Learning 2015 25 Web Server Software Commonly used Web server programs Apache HTTP Server

Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) Other Web server programs Nginx (pronounced engine-x) Lighttpd (pronounced lighty) Google Web Server (uses Linux) Google is the only company that uses it Microsoft IIS and nginx have taken market share from Apache in recent years Cengage Learning 2015 26 FIGURE 8-4 Percent of active Web sites that use major Web server

software products Cengage Learning 2015 27 Web Server Software (contd.) Reasons for dominance of Apache HTTP Server Free Performs efficiently Active contributors to online forum

Runs on many operating systems and supporting hardware FreeBSD-UNIX, HP-UX, Linux, Microsoft Windows, SCO-UNIX, and Solaris Cengage Learning 2015 28 Web Server Software (contd.) Microsoft Internet Information Server Bundled with Microsoft Windows Server OS Used on many corporate intranets Used by small and large sites Run only on Windows server operating systems (by

design) Runs ASP technology efficiently Allows users to create dynamic Web pages Cengage Learning 2015 29 Electronic Mail (E-Mail) Electronic commerce important technologies

Web Provides interactions between Web servers and clients E-mail uses Gather information Execute transactions Perform other electronic commerce related tasks Cengage Learning 2015 30 E-Mail Benefits Reason people originally attracted to the Internet Conveys messages in seconds

Contains simple ASCII text or character formatting Useful feature Attachments: often most important message part Most popular form of business communication Cengage Learning 2015 31 E-Mail Drawbacks Time spent answering e-mail Managers: five minutes per message Average person: two hours a day

Computer virus (virus) Program attaching itself to another program Causes damage when host program activated Attachment can contain viruses Cost for e-mail convenience Virus protection software; dealing with security threats Cengage Learning 2015 32 Spam Magnitude of spam problem

In 2009: 24-hour period showed 220 billion spam e-mail messages sent Researchers believe spam growth has leveled off Appears to be declining slightly Technical solutions continue to reduce amount of spam Most companies block spam before it gets to the users computer Cengage Learning 2015 33 FIGURE 8-5 Spam as a proportion of all business e-mail

Cengage Learning 2015 34 Solutions to the Spam Problem Methods to limit spam and its effects Passing new laws Technical changes in Internet mail-handling systems Use existing laws and current technologies Requires cooperation from large numbers of organizations and businesses Use tactics available for individual e-mail users Cengage Learning 2015

35 Individual User Antispam Tactics Limit spammers access to e-mail address Use complex e-mail address [email protected] Control e-mail address exposure Spammer software robots search for e-mail addresses Discussion boards, chat rooms, other online sources Use multiple e-mail addresses Switch to another if spammers use one

Use filtering techniques based on contents Cengage Learning 2015 36 Basic Content Filtering Content-filtering techniques differ in terms of: Content elements examined Spam indications How strictly message classification rules applied Basic content filters examine e-mail headers Filtering task software location Client-level filtering: individual users computers

Server-level filtering: mail server computers Cengage Learning 2015 37 Basic Content Filtering (contd.) Black list spam filter Looks for known spammers in incoming messages From addresses Requires list to be continually updated White list spam filter Looks for good sender From addresses in incoming messages

High false positives rate Used in client-level or server-level filters Can use approaches together Cengage Learning 2015 38 Challenge-Response Content Filtering Compares all incoming messages to a white list If sender is not on the white list, automated e-mail response sent (challenge) Challenge asks sender to reply to e-mail (response) Reply must contain response to a challenge presented in the e-mail

Designed so human can respond easily More information Carnegie Mellon University CAPTCHA Project site Cengage Learning 2015 39 Challenge-Response Content Filtering (contd.) Drawback Potential abuse FIGURE 8-6 Example of a challenge that uses distorted letters and numbers

Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 40 Advanced Content Filtering More effective than basic content filters Looks for spam indicators in entire e-mail message Indicator identified: messages spam score raised Indicator types Words, word pairs, certain HTML codes, information about where word occurs Problems

Spammers stop including defined indicators Cengage Learning 2015 41 Advanced Content Filtering (contd.) Bayesian revision statistical technique Additional knowledge used to revise earlier probability estimates Nave Bayesian filter

Software begins by not classifying messages User reviews messages Message type indicated to software: spam (not spam) Software gradually learns message element Cengage Learning 2015 42 Advanced Content Filtering (contd.) Nave Bayesian filter success rates Few dozen messages classified: 80 percent effective Eventually: effective rate rises above 95 percent

POPFile Bayesian filter product for individuals Cengage Learning 2015 43 Legal Solutions January 2004: U.S. CAN-SPAM law went into effect Spam decreased first two months After no threat of federal prosecution, spam rates returned to previous levels CAN-SPAM provisions

Prohibits misleading e-mail message address header information, deceptive subject headers Prohibits transfer of email addresses Possible $11,000 fine and imprisonment Cengage Learning 2015 44 Legal Solutions (contd.) Some spammers have been prosecuted and fined or received jail time Many spammers use servers located outside the U.S. Issue of jurisdiction

Legal solutions have had only limited success Expensive to prosecute spammers Cengage Learning 2015 45 Technical Solutions Internet design not intended for today's uses E-mail: incidental afterthought No mechanisms ensuring e-mail sender identity Internets polite set of rules Send and wait for acknowledgement (fast)

Slowing down acknowledgment messages Originating computer will slow (must continue to scan for acknowledgment) Will not send more messages until acknowledgment received Cengage Learning 2015 46 Technical Solutions (contd.) Slowing down acknowledgment messages (contd.) Requires defending company to develop way to identify computers sending spam

IBM software: access to large database tracking computers sending spam Other vendors: software identifying multiple e-mail messages from single source in rapid succession Once identified: software delays sending message acknowledgment Cengage Learning 2015 47 Technical Solutions (contd.) Teergrubing (tar pit): launching a return attack Sending e-mail messages back to computer originating suspected spam

Teergrubing objective Ensure computer sending spam is trapped Drag down ability to send spam Concern: counterattack might violate laws Ultimate spam solution New e-mail protocols providing absolute verification of e-mail message source Cengage Learning 2015 48 Web Site Utility Programs TCP/IP supports utility programs (tools)

Run on Web server or client computers E-mail: earliest Internet utility program Most important utility Key element in electronic commerce strategies Cengage Learning 2015 49 Tracert and Other Route-Tracing Programs Tracert (TRACE RouTe) Sends data packets to every computer on path Between one computer and another computer

Clocks packets round-trip times Provides indication of time message needs to travel from one computer to another and back Ensures remote computer online Pinpoints data traffic congestion Calculates and displays: Number of hops between computers Time to traverse entire one-way path Cengage Learning 2015 50 FIGURE 8-7 Tracing a path between two computers on the Internet Cengage Learning 2015

Cengage Learning 2015 51 Data Analysis Software Web servers capture visitor information Placed into Web log file (grows quickly) Third-party Web log file analysis programs summarize information Query log file Return gross summary information or accumulating details Popular Web log file analysis programs

Adobe Analytics, Google Analytics, WebTrends Cengage Learning 2015 52 Link-Checking Utilities Dead link Displays error message rather than Web page when clicked Link rot Site contains many dead links Link checker

Examines each site page Reports broken, incorrect URLs Identifies orphan files Web site file not linked to a page Cengage Learning 2015 53 Link-Checking Utilities (contd.) Link checker (contd.) Script checking HTML validation Link-checking programs Adobe Dreamweaver (included)

Elsop LinkScan (separate utility) LinxCop (separate utility) Cengage Learning 2015 54 Remote Server Administration Web site administrator controls Web site Monitor server activity Manipulate server Access from any Internet-connected computer Provides convenience Examples

LabTech Software NetMechanic Cengage Learning 2015 55 Web Server Hardware Hosting electronic commerce operations Wide variety of computer brands, types, sizes used Very small companies Run Web sites on desktop PCs Most Web sites Operate on computers designed for site hosting

Cengage Learning 2015 56 Server Computers Comparing desktop PCs to server computers Servers use faster and higher-capacity hardware Many Web server computers use multiple processors Costs Most companies spend $2,000-$50,000 on a Web server Housing Web server computers

Freestanding cases Installed in equipment racks Cengage Learning 2015 57 Server Computers (contd.) Blade servers Servers-on-a-card Small in size: 300 installed in single 6-foot rack Cengage Learning 2015 58

Web Servers and Green Computing Electrical power needs Operating servers Cooling the room where servers are housed Green computing Efforts to reduce the environmental impact of large computing installations Novel approaches using natural cooling Google server facility in Finland Facebook server in Lulea, Sweden Other companies: Hewlett-Packard, FedEx, Harris Corporation

Cengage Learning 2015 59 Web Server Performance Evaluation Benchmarking Testing to compare hardware and software performance Elements affecting overall server performance Hardware, operating system software, server software, connection speed, user capacity, type of Web pages delivered Connection bandwidth Number of users server can handle

Important and hard to measure Cengage Learning 2015 60 Web Server Performance Evaluation (contd.) Throughput Number of HTTP requests hardware and software process in a unit of time Response time Time server requires to process one request

Choosing Web server hardware configurations Run tests Independent testing lab: Mindcraft Benchmarks developed by: Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation Cengage Learning 2015 61 Web Server Hardware Architectures Electronic commerce Web sites use tiered architecture Divides work of serving Web pages May use more than one computer within each tier

Server farms: large collections of servers Lined up row after row Centralized architecture Uses a few expensive, fast computers More sensitive to technical problems Requires adequate backup plans Cengage Learning 2015 62 Web Server Hardware Architectures (contd.) Distributed architecture (decentralized architecture)

Uses large number of less-powerful computers Spreads risk over large number of servers Uses less-expensive servers Requires additional hubs or switches to connect servers to each and the Internet Requires cost of load balancing Cengage Learning 2015 63

FIGURE 8-9 Centralized and decentralized Web site architectures Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 64 Load-Balancing Systems Load-balancing switch Network hardware monitoring server workloads Assigns incoming Web traffic to the server with most available capacity Simple load-balancing system Traffic enters through sites router Encounters load-balancing switch

Directs traffic to best Web server Cengage Learning 2015 65 FIGURE 8-10 Basic load-balancing system Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 66 Load-Balancing Systems (contd.) More complex load-balancing systems

Incoming Web traffic enters from two or more routers Directed to groups of dedicated Web servers Groups organized by specific functions Cost of load-balancing systems Simple: about $2000 Complex: $15,000 to $40,000 Cengage Learning 2015 67 FIGURE 8-11 Complex load balancing system Cengage Learning 2015

Cengage Learning 2015 68

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