INTRO TO ARGUMENT AND RHETORIC - Mr. Jason Spitzer, English ...
INTRO TO ARGUMENT AND RHETORIC THE FOUNDATION OF AP LANGUAGE WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT? What is an argument? In academic terms and in this course, an argument is: 1. A reason or set of reasons given with the aim of persuading others that an action or idea is right or wrong. 2. One of four rhetorical modes (others being descriptive, expository, and narrative). Arguments can be explicit (clearly stated) or implicit (unstated). Ex. Mr. Spitzer tells a student: Study for Fridays terms quiz because it is not only for a
grade but also part of building a foundation in rhetorical study (explicit). Versus Mr. Spitzer tells a student: Theres a terms quiz Friday (implicit). Arguments exist in what Aristotle called a rhetorical situation. Correctly identifying a rhetorical situation allows one to create the most persuasive arguments. RHETORICAL SITUATION A rhetorical situation exists whenever a speaker/author, the speaker/authors purpose, and an audience come together within a
particular context. As you know, this can be a daily or even hourly occurrence! The message conveyed (written or spoken) is an explicit and/or implicit argument. RHETORICAL SITUATION For example: Speaker (Spitzer); Audience (You, meaning AP Language students new
to AP Language); Purpose (Teach new AP Lang students about argument and rhetoric); Context (Spitzer is an AP Language teacher at a public high school on Edwards AFB, CA teaching a lesson on argument and rhetoric). Apply: working with 2-3 students near you, create a rhetorical situation. Be prepared to share in about 5 minutes. RHETORICAL SITUATION The particulars of a rhetorical situation (who the author/speaker is, who the
intended/unintended audience is, what the purpose is, what the context is) affect how a message/argument is composed and delivered. Ex. _________s valedictorian speech. Subject? Form? Tone? Language/Style Choices? See Mr. Spitzers additions to the rhetorical triangle on the board. RHETORIC: THE ART OF PERSUASION Rhetoric has many different definitions, but
Aristotle wrote that it is the ability to find all the available means of persuasion in any situation. Rhetoric is the art of persuasive speech or the ability to move an audience. If one is a master of rhetoric, one can formulate an infinite number of persuasive arguments on any topic, in any situation. Also, if one is a master of rhetorical analysis, one can unpack the arguments of others for
greater understanding, appreciation, or to identify faulty claims and reasoning. APPEALS: ETHOS, PATHOS, AND LOGOS Aristotle wrote that effective arguments can be created through ethical or credible appeals to the audience (ethos), emotional appeals to the audience (pathos), and appeals to logic and reason (logos). See Mr. Spitzers additions to rhetorical triangle. In AP Language, we will find that speakers and authors can use appeals through particular choices in diction, syntax, figurative language, tone, imagery, and devices.
Note: If writing that an author appeals, for example, to pathos, be specific as to exactly what the author is doing and its effect on the audience. For example, often times pathos is created by using particular connotations of words or specific imagery; logos can be created not only through statistics, charts, and graphs, but through the structure of the text and deductive and inductive reasoning. PRACTICING RHETORIC Apply: Working with 2-3 students near you and using the rhetorical situation you previously created, explain how your author/speaker might use appeals (ethos, pathos, and logos) and what the effect would be on the audience. Be prepared to share in about 10
minutes. SOAPSTONE Identifying the components of a rhetorical situation within a speech or text can be easily done through a process called SOAPSTONE. Speaker (or author) Occasion (Context or exigence) Audience (Intended and non-intended) Purpose (Often implicit) Subject (Often explicit; look for shifts) Tone (Look for shifts) (D)evices and (A)ppeals (Rhetorical Choices which stand out)
RHETORICAL PRCIS A rhetorical prcis analyzes both the content (the what) and the delivery (the how) of spoken or written discourse. It is a highly structured four-sentence paragraph blending summary and analysis. Format: 1A. Name of author, title of work, date in parenthesis 1B. An action verb (asserts, argues, denies, refutes, proves, disproves, explains, etc.)
1C. A that clause containing a major claim (thesis of the work). 2. Explanation of HOW the author develops and supports the claim. 3. A statement of the authors purpose followed by an in order phrase. 4. Description of the intended audience and/or relationship the author establishes with the audience. RHETORICAL ANALYSIS A rhetorical analysis essay takes a position on how an author or speaker attempts to move an audience and why, as well as explains how these strategies affect the audience and why.
The rhetorical analysis is question three of the free response section of the AP Language and Composition exam. INTRODUCTION Introduces the topic and takes a position on how an author or speaker attempts to move an audience and why. Sentence #1: TAGD. Sentence #2: The context/occasion and intended audience. Sentence #3: THESIS. Author/speaker uses concrete in order to abstract/thematic idea.
BODY PARAGRAPHS In order to demonstrate significant understanding of the passage and complete a thorough analysis, rhetorical analysis papers should be written chronologically, covering the beginning of the passage through the end. Write two body paragraphs of analysis which support your thesis statement. Organize these body paragraphs into logical units which bisect the passage in a meaningful way (look for a shift in tone, subject,
audience, etc.) BODY PARAGRAPHS Body #1: The beginning Assertion: Make an assertion about what the author/speaker does from the beginning of passage, why, and the effect on the audience. Evidence #1: Introduce and provide evidence (quote).
Body #2: The end Assertion: Make an assertion about what the author/speaker does from shift of passage, why, and the effect on the audience through to the end. Evidence #3: Introduce and provide evidence (quote). Commentary/analysis (why and effect) Commentary/analysis (why and effect)
Evidence #2: Evidence #4: Commentary/analysis (why and effect) Commentary/analysis (why and effect) Conclusion Conclusion
CONCLUSION (IF TIME) Restate thesis Restate assertions Final statement about why the author/speakers rhetorical strategies were effective for his/her intended audience. Argumentative Writing The new journal format: Assertion because reasons (1 and 2) Reason #1 Evidence Commentary Reason #2 Evidence Commentary Concession + Refutation
Conclusion Introduction Introduce topic and the topic's complexity (2-3 sentences) THESIS: Assertion because reason 1 and reason 2 Body Body 1 Reason 1 because evidence 1 and evidence 2 Evidence 1 and commentary and
tie to thesis Evidence 2 and commentary and tie to thesis Conclusion of reason 1 Body 2 Repeat steps from body 1. Body (concession + refutation) Concession Refutation because ____________ Evidence to support refutation and commentary and
connection to thesis Conclusion Restate thesis Restate the topic sentences/assertions Final insightful comment
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