Planet structure Even about the Earth we do not know many details of the internal structure. Data about other planets is very incomplete and indirect. 1312.3323
Structure of the Solar system planets What Solar system planets are made of? Except Jupiter and Saturn planets are mostly made of elements heavier than helium.
Even icy-giants Neptune and Uranus, are mainly made not of H+He. 1405.3752 Structure of giant planets Except Uranus giant planets might not have solid cores. However, there cores are made of heavy elements. And so often they are called made of rocks.
1405.3752 Temperature and pressure in atmospheres of giants For Jupiter direct data are available due to Galileo probe measurements.
1405.3752 Hydrogene equation of state Still, there are important uncertainties even for the hydrogen equation of state. Some regimes have been never measured in laboratories.
1405.3752 Hydrogen plus helium mixture 1405.3752 Diamond anvil cells
Diamond cells are used to reach high pressures in laboratory experiments. However, it is not enough, and in many cases we have to base only on numerical models. Merkel (2013) Bouchet et al. (2013)
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/mineralogy/mineral_physics/diamond_anvil.html Diamond cell http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/mineralogy/mineral_physics/diamond_anvil.html Scheme of the experiment
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/mineralogy/mineral_physics/diamond_anvil.html How to press? How to heat the matter Electric current (for lower temperatures) or laser (for higher temperature).
Up to 1300 Above 1300 http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/mineralogy/mineral_physics/diamond_anvil.html Comparison with conditions in the Earth http://mini.physics.sunysb.edu/~pstephens/downloadable/ehm_dac.pdf
Mass-radius models for planets Relatively simple model based on just 8 key elements. Good results for Solar system planets. 1401.4738
Mass-radius diagram for exoplanets Planet radius, of course, depends on its composition. Light planets typically do not have extended gas envelopes. Oppositely, giant planets might hath very thick gas envelopes. Very often data on mass and radius can be explained by different combinations of ingredients.
1401.4738 Theory vs. observations 1405.3752 http://seagerexoplanets.mit.edu/research.htm
Three main ingredients: gas, ice, rock Three main types of planets Gas giants H/He 1312.3323
Icy giants H/He+ice+core Solid planets Si, Mg, Fe, O, C Thick atmospheres for M>4MEarth
1312.0936 Corot-27b. Dense planet Orbital period 3.6 days. Solar-like star 1401.1122
Kepler-51. Crumbly planets. Solar type star. Three planets with masses 2-8 Mearth and low densities: <0.05 g/cm3 Orbital periods 45-130 days. 1401.2885
Wikipedia Superearths. Diversity of properties. Wikipedia
Sizes of superearths Corot-7b Typical radii 1-4 of the Earth I.e., between the Earth and Neptune). Sometimes low density planets in the range are called mini-Neptunes.
Superearths: mass-radius Superearths are very numerous planets. Only those with well-determined mass and radius are shown. Inner cores can consist either of rocks (and iron) or of ices. Some of superearths obviously
have thick gas envelopes. This is a challenge to formation models. 1402.4818 Superearths models For less massive planets parameters are mainly determined by the core.
For more massive by the outer envelope. Heating can be also important. Results are shown for planets with solid earth-type cores. 1402.4818 Just add water
Let us fix the planet mass and change the fraction of ice. Here water is added as an ice layer above a solid (rocky) core. Only for lower masses it is possible to distinguish (by radius measurements) between pure-ice cores and pure-rock cores. 1402.4818
Internal structure Without an envelope 1402.4818 With an envelope Under pressure
Interiors might have high pressure and density 1402.4818 Wikipedia Soil and water
Radius vs. mass for different water content 1402.4818 Atmospheres Transits and atmosphere studies
1709.05941 Transits and atmospheres Transit observations in different wavelengths allow to determine properties of the planet atmosphere. Size can be different in different wavelengths.
In addition, light curve can look different due to atmospheric dynamics. Heat redistribution due to strong winds modifies the flux from the planet. 1302.1141 1407.4150
Featureless spectrum of GJ 1214b Obscured by clouds. Hubble space telescope spectrum shows no details. This is interpreted as the result of the presence of a thick cloud layer in the outer atmosphere
of the planet. 1401.0022 Phase dependence Depending on the phase we observe different parts of a disc. Results of observations correspond to: HD 189733b upper panel;
HD 209458b lower panel. Both planets are hot jupiters. Note, that in the case of HD 209458b planetary disc is strongly non-symmetric in terms of the emitted flux. 1407.4150 Scanning planetary discs
HD189733b Spitzer space telescope 1202.3829 Dynamics of outer layers of hot jupiters
Planet has internal and external heat sources. This results in violent winds and convection in the outer gas envelope. 1405.3752 Wind on HD 209458 Wind velocity can be directly (!) measured.
The planet is a VERY hot Jupiter. Wind velocity is ~ 2 km/s 1006.4364 Modeling winds on hot jupiters General property: Strong equatorial wind from the West to the East.
1407.4150 Modeling of HD209458 b Osiris 1405.3752
Exomoons: how to form Regular satellites Are formed together with planets from the circumplanetary disc Irregular satellites Capture or collision
Giant ring system System of 37 rings extending up to 0.6 AU around a stellar companion. The star is young (16 Myrs), and so, probably, the system of rings is just forming. Satellites might regulate the shape of the ring system. 1501.05652
To be large respect to the host-planet the satellite might be irregular. Systems with many planets are more favorable. Larger planets have larger moons. Hot jupiters (and neptunes) can
loose planets during migration. http://minerva.union.edu/parkashv/hotjupiters.html http://www.freemars.org/jeff/planets/Luna/Luna.htm Which planets might have detectable satellites?
Modeling satellite formation A massive planet: 10 Mjupiter 1408.6164 Satellite capture in three-body interaction
Results of modeling of a satellite capture. The body initially had a companion which was lost during three-body interaction. This scenario requires a massive planet. Such interactions can happen in the habitable zone. 1408.6164 How to find an exomoon Potentially, all methods for exoplanets discovery can work. However, presently methods related to transits seems to be
more favorable: 1. TTV 2. TDV 3. Orbital plane changes. 1405.1455 Joint transits
1405.1455 How strong is the effect? 1408.6164 An example: Jupiter with satellites
over the Sun 1503.03251 A planet with a moon but without a star? Microlensing. Two solutions are possible:
1. 0.12Msun+18MEarth 2. 4MJup+0.5MEarth Uncertainty is related to unknown distance 1312.3951 New measurements and a
Tidal heating Satellites can be heated by tides. Effect can be so strong, that a satellite with an atmosphere can experience the greenhouse effect. 1408.6164
Planetary magnetospheres It is argued that magnetic shield can be important for life. A satellite can ``use the planetary field. However, if the satellite is too close to the planet then tides can heat it up. If it is too far it can be out of the magnetosphere.
1408.6164 Can JWST see exomoons? A satellite might be large (as the Earth) and warm (also as the Earth, at least). Potentially, such satellites can appear around massive planets far from the star, where it is easier to see them.
A satellite can be heated by tides. 1408.6164 Literature arxiv:1604.06092 Exoplanetary Atmospheres - Chemistry, Formation Conditions, and Habitability arxiv:1507.03966 Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres arxiv:1401.4738 Planetary internal structures
arxiv:1312.3323 The Structure of Exoplanets arxiv:1501.05685 Exoplanetary Geophysics -- An Emerging Discipline arxiv:1701.00493 Illusion and Reality in the Atmospheres of Exoplanets arxiv:1411.1740 Seismology of Giant Planets arxiv:1709.05941 Exoplanet Atmosphere Measurements from Transmission Spectroscopy and other PlanetStar Combined Light Observations
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