Intelligent Management of Container Terminals Chuqian Zhang
BM_M0110/GSLM52700 Warehouse Planning and Operations Systems Yat-wah Wan Room: C317; Email: ywan; Ext: 3166 Office Hour: Wed 3 5 pm, or by appointment * Objectives of the Course the role and effect of warehouses in a supply chain * Container Terminals * Outline
background container ports container terminals goods and equipment an example: HIT decision problems
* Background * Terminology TEU twenty-foot equivalent unit, the standard unit to measure container throughput a 40 ft container = 2 TEU * Venues for Container Transfer
container terminal container yard feeder ports and river ports mid-stream operations public cargo working areas * Questions
How important is containerization? What are the advantages of containerization? pre-containerization (00:002:47) bulk cargo What are the functions of container terminals? What facilities and equipment are required in
container terminals? * Container Ports world traffic top 10 containers ports in 2011 how to rank these ports: Busan, Dubai, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Rotterdam, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Singapore *
Ranking of Container Ports 2010 6 of the top 10 busiest container ports in China (units in TEU) Shanghai (1st, 29.1 m), Hong Kong (3rd, 23.7 m), Shenzhen (4th, 22.5 m), Ningbo (6th, 13.1 m), Guangzhou (7th, 12.6 m), Qingdao (8th, 12 m) Singapore (2nd, 28.4 m), Busan (5th, 14.2 m), Dubai (9th, 11.6 m), Rotterdam (10th, 11.4 m) Tianjin (11th, 10.1), Kaohsiung (12th, 9.2 m)
2011 throughput of container ports in Taiwan in decreasing importance: Kaohsiung (9.64 mill TEU), Keelung (1.75 mill TEU), Taichung (1.38 mill TEU) * Container Terminals * A Container Terminal as a Warehouse a special type of warehouse
very standardized goods for short term storage some form of consolidation flexible layout for the same type of containers heavy equipment highly information driven * A Container Terminal as a Warehouse
to define a container terminal goods layout equipment processes information systems
problems * Types of Goods containers various types, of different size, weight, nature, port of destination, and port of origin, etc. bulk goods breaking down and building up at a Cargo Freig
ht Station * Vessels non-self sustained cellular (NSSC) self sustained cellar (SSC) self sustained non-cellular (SSNC) car carrier/RoRo ships
ultimate container carrier (UCC) lighter/barge * Container Movements in and out of a Terminal import vessel discharging vessel loading deterministic in time and processing order Blocks in
a Container Yard export * container picking up container grounding stochastic in time and processing order Typical Container Terminal Layout Maintenancy Yard Gate House Temporary ParkingBlocks,
Lot for ITs Ycs, and QCs Block, IT and YC Gate House CFS Offices QCs and container vessel blocks of containers block yard crane QC IT and QC *
scaffold platform chassis bridge crane * reach stackers HIT *
Hongkong International Terminals relative location terminals: 4, 6, 7, 9, and 50% of 8 East areas a clearer picture a total 92 hectares for terminals 4, 6, and 7 30 hectares for terminal 8
19 hectares for terminal 9 > 5 km quay length, 14 ship berths, & 9 barge berths 57 quay cranes, 8 rail-mounted jib cranes, 24 rail-mounted gantry cranes, 184 rubber-tyred gantry cranes , Hutchison Logistic Centre: 377,741 m2 * Hongkong International Terminals Example: HIT/COSCO HIT Terminals operations key facts, terminal layout, work flow, virtual tour: guided tour and spots light work
flow and information systems throughput: 10.253 mill TEU in 126 ha (2010) 1170 TEU/hour 179,900 TEU/QC/year * Web Material for Container Terminals Singapore Port - World's Busiest Port Hongkong International Terminals . . .
* Decision Problems in Container Terminals * Performance Indices throughput number per unit time for terminal, cranes, gate house
utilization of container, of each type of container, of move cranes, space (block, stack, slot), berth occupancies time in system tractors, vessels, containers * Operations Decisions in a Container Terminal berth allocation (allocating vessels to berths) schedule and stowage
plan of vessels QC allocation (allocating QCs to (bays of) vessels) storage space allocation (determining the numbers of I/B & O/B containers of each vessel in a block) location assignment (determining the exact locations of containers in blocks) RTGC deployment (deploying RTGCs in real time) IT deployment (deploying ITs in real time) * Literature Review papers Related to Container Terminals
Murty, K.G., J.Y. Liu, Y.-w. Wan, R. Linn (2005) A decision support system for operations in a container terminal, Decision Support Systems, 39(3), 309-332. Stahlbock, R., and S. Voss (2008) Operations research at container terminals: a literature update, OR Spectrum, 30(1), 1-52. Steenken, D., S. Voss, and R. Stahlbock (2004) Container terminal operation and operations research a classification and literature review, 26(1), 3-49. Vis IFA (2006) Survey of research in the design and control of automated guided vehicle systems, European Journal of Operational Research, 170(3), 677-709. * Advantages of Containerization simplify packaging, loading, unloading, and
custom checking of goods reduce transportation times and costs increase utilisation of vessels and ports * Advantages of Containerization disadvantages of bulk goods in pre-container era
loading, unloading, and stacking operations for each carrier change manually with low efficiency high labor cost, 80% of total cost for bulk goods by 1960s long vessel porting time good packaging consuming time and costs damages mixing up of goods custom checking at each intermediate ports more paperwork and high insurance charge * Time Taken for Containerization not all goods can be containerized the magnitude of changes
a totally new managing and controlling mechanism new port design new loading and unloading operations , replacement of fork-finger quays replaced by long water front quays small dollies and trolleys by huge shore and yard cranes labourers by skilful equipment operators Job reduction
huge investment in material handling equipment and human resources new custom practice for eliminating individual consignments * Functions of Container Terminal intermodal interface temporary storage for containers paperwork for containers building up & breaking down of containers
* Types of Container ordinary dry container: most common * Types of Container reefer container ventilated container
temperature control e.g., for frozen meat and diary products holes for ventilation for fruits and vegetables insulated container keeping heat from the cargoes * Types of Container open top container
flat rack container loaded and unloaded from top for large-size, heave items bottom part and two small sides for heavy or odd-size items platform container a plain plate without sides for extra large and/or weight *
Types of Container bulk container for bulk goods hatch covers on top for loading & unloading free flowing bulk material container for carrying powder, fluid, or gas using pumps for loading and unloading
* Types of Container special purpose container, e.g., dress hanger container for clothes without folding pen container for animals
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