Intellectual Development

Intellectual Development

Intellectual Development Intellectual Theorists: Piaget: 4 stages Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational Gardner: 8 intelligences Verbal-linguistic, Logicalmathematical, Visual-spatial, Musical, Bodily-kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Piagets stages: Piaget - Sensori-Motor Birth 2

years Children learn through touching and putting things in their mouths. Only understands actions and their consequences Touch hot stove- OUCH!!! Primary circular reactions= action serves as a stimulus to repeat the same action (1-4 months) Shake the rattle = like the sound, do it again Piaget - Preoperational

Thinking: Children 2-7 Use of symbols can start to understand that symbols mean something. Make believe play fantasy and drama plays help to learn roles, school, house Egocentric ME, ME, ME!!! I like chocolate so does everyone else. Children understand the world through what they think/feel. Limited focus only think in terms of one classifier at a time. Tennis balls: 4 white, 7 yellow. Ask child are

Piaget - Concrete Operational Thinking: Children 7-11 Thinking logically but learn best from DIRECT EXPERIENCE, still need to do something to understand it. Can understand conservation of material: pour liquid from one container to another does not change

its amount. Classification skills are refined to take more into account, such as color, shape, size, quantity, etc. Piaget - Formal Operational Thinking: Children 11 through Adulthood Abstract thinking - what might be, what if hypotheses, positive and negative Deeper understanding and subtle messages, reading between the lines are

developed. Going beyond the self perspective Piaget - Formal Operational Thinking: Children 11 through Adulthood cont. Can start to plan tasks and organize work for efficiency, break down long term projects. Around 12, capacity for learning and attention goes down for about 2 years, likely due to new interests and puberty. About 14, learning ability picks back up again. Young teens still think they can solve

complex problems with simple, black and white thinking, dont see realistic perspective quite yet. Piaget - Formal Operational Thinking: Children 11 through Adulthood cont. Middle school students: still need more coddling, help from adults, they start switching teachers, but use team approach so that all students can be monitored. High school students: dont generally need as much personal attention, although I think thats still important.

Homework at both levels - important, reinforces learning: should be more complex than elementary school. Homework is childs responsibility, not the parents: Parents should only support if necessary. Learn independence!!! Intelligence: What is it? Tested for over 100 years. Stanford-Binet:

standard intelligence test gives IQ or intelligence quotient, a number to represent intelligence 90-110 normal: If above or below, then considered above or below normal intelligence gifted or learning disabled Howard Gardner 8 Intelligences We learn

best through our stronges t intellige nce. Learning Everyday- Teach-able Moments Every day occurrences Questions spur learning Ask the child to teach you or someone else something - deepens

understanding. Children are curious use that!!! Use positive reinforcement and praise, but not to excess. Reading learning for life Phonemes - sounds letters make in words. More reading to children = more learning Choose great, colorful, vocabulary-rich books.

Children who are bilingual (speaking two languages) actually understand printed words sooner than children who Choosing the right books Are books: interesting? colorful? appeal to the childs interests? Include action to hold attention? Will the child understand MOST of the words, when they do understand all of them, move onto harder books. Challenge is needed for

learning to occur. People learn best when they are interested, find what interests a child/person, and they will be more engaged in the learning. In school Are they ready for school? Preschool helps the transition. Kindergarten helps children learn what school is all about. Kids should know and be able to tell you: who they are, where they live, their

phone number, and who their parents are before going to school. Age often determines when children can start school, but Speech Development Language development can vary by location. By age 6: 2,500 words are usually understood and used Articulation = clear, distinct speech, no more baby talk Physical development also plays a role in speech development. Fine motor skills in

mouth determine speech. b, p, m sounds need only lips. f & v sounds need teeth. j, ch, st, pl, sl sounds need lips, teeth and tongue to produce. Please = PWEASE Speech Difficulties cont. Exposure is key use high quality words Problems - try to get help for the child. Children may tease and make fun of those with differences/disabilities

when young. Special Needs Gifted Learning Disabilities ADD/ADHD Dyslexia Special Needs cont. Two forms of special needs: Gifted and Learning Disabled

Gifted: higher than normal intelligence, IQ usually of 130 and above Bored easily if not challenged Can have much deeper thoughts Usually shows up early by about 2-3 years of age Gifted students need recognition and acceptance of abilities Ask challenging questions If not challenged, can become problem or poor students Special enrichment classes, even whole schools, devoted to gifted students

Special Needs cont. Learning Disabled: lower than average intelligence, below 90, not linked to physical disabilities Can be easily frustrated Development is uneven

Need more or different instruction to learn Deprived learning environment not usually cause, nor is mental or emotional problem Different types of learning disabilities Special classes, part or full time usually within the regular school Special Needs cont. ADD/ADHD Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder:

Difficulty paying attention/focusing of task at hand Dont finish what is started Some lack emotional control May be caused by chemical imbalance in the brain. It can be hereditary, runs in family. Can also be due to mother taking drugs while pregnant. Children need to learn to settle themselves, sometimes medication may be necessary. Special Needs cont.

Dyslexia difficulty understanding/interpreting the printed word Reverse letters and numbers. Difficulty distinguishing left and right. Best practice for young children is to teach phonics to help recognize sound/letter connections. Its not that children with dyslexia cant learn, but they need special approach, and lots of patience to learn. Learning disabilities show up usually during school, so it can be hard for parents to accept if they dont recognize it at home.

Responsibilities at home also help children feel accomplished, particularly if they are struggling at school. Sum it up Intellectual growth is all about the thinking process and how people learn. Giftedness usually shows up early, disabilities may not show up until child is in school. Teachers and parents need to recognize struggling children and give appropriate assistance, including specialists.

All children can learn, they just need their best way to learn.

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