Integrating Quotations into Your Essay

Integrating Quotations into Your Essay

Integrating Quotations into Your Essay "By necessity, by proclivity, and by delight, we all quote." -Ralph Waldo Emerson When to Use Quotations Use quotations to serve as examples of your main points and observations. Choose only important material

that effectively supports your point. When to Use Quotations Select quotations carefully and purposefully for a research paper or for literary analysis: to illustrate or explain an opinion or idea to assert a fact

to provide authority for an assertion you have made to provide a focal point to show many opinions How to Integrate Quotations Sprinkle your discussion with key phrases and terms, which should be surrounded with quotations marks.

In Brown, Richard Rodriguez claims that this muddied color is complete freedom of substance and narrative and serves as the cement between leaves of paradox (xi). How to Integrate Quotations Use an indirect statement with "that. Notice the punctuation.

Margaret Mead feels that "the use of marriage contracts may reduce the divorce rate" (9). How to Integrate Quotations Blend your lead-in and quotation. Knight views the symbolism in Jones' play as a "creation and destruction pattern" (164).

How to Integrate Quotations Use a complete sentence lead-in. Follow with a colon and two spaces before the quotation. Edith Hamilton describes Hera perfectly: "She was the protector of marriage, and married women were her particular care" (223). Again the main character hears the

words spoken by his grandfather: "I never told you, but our life is a war" (154). How to Integrate Quotations Use an introductory phrase or clause. According to Wally Lamb, The workshop sessions have been a journey rich with laughter, tears, heart-stopping leaps of faith, and miraculous personal

victories" (5). As Bartholomews mother continuously intervenes for her ex-husband, she argues that maybe its not his fault at all. . . . Maybe that old cats drugging him" (303). Punctuating Quotations Use a comma for a brief, informal,

or grammatically incomplete introduction. Prufrock thinks, "I am no prophet-and here's no great matter" (line 37). Punctuating Quotations Use a colon to separate your own complete sentence lead-ins from quotations.

Remember that a complete sentence must be on either side of the colon. Punctuating Quotations Use an ellipsis [. . .] to indicate material omitted from the quotation. Hamlet tells Ophelia, "you jig and amble . . . and make your

wantonness your ignorance" (III.i.140-142). Punctuating Quotations Use brackets [ ] to indicate editorial changes that you must make to clarify the quotation or improve the grammatical structure of your sentence. Flaubert writes, "She looked carefully for

the place where [Elizabeth] had entered the garden" (65). Flaubert says that "she [has] an excess of energy" (97). Punctuating Quotations Introduce long quotations with a complete sentence followed by a colon. In A Room of One's Own, Virginia Wolff speaks about women in literature and history:

A very queer, composite being thus emerges. Imaginatively she is of the highest importance; practically she is completely insignificant. She pervades poetry from cover to cover; she is all but absent from history. She dominates the loves of kings and conquerors in fiction; in fact, she was the slave of any boy whose parents forced a ring upon her finger. (60) Punctuating Quotations

Use double quotation marks for a quotation and single quotation marks for an inner quotation. After his interview with Hester, Dimmensdale sinks into self-doubt: "'Have I then sold myself,' thought the minister, 'to the fiend whom . . . this velveted old hag has chosen for her prince and master!'" (237).

Punctuating Quotations Always put colons and semicolons outside quotation marks. The senator announced, "I will not seek re-election"; then he left the room (25). Punctuating Quotations Always put periods and commas

inside quotation marks, except when there is a parenthetical documentation. Though Thoreau wrote that most men "lead lives of quiet desperation" (98), much of his book about Walden Pond "expresses joy" (96). Punctuating Quotations Put other marks of punctuation

(question marks, dashes, exclamation points) inside when they are part of the quoted material, outside when they are not. When King Hamlet's ghost reveals that he was killed by Claudius, young Hamlet exclaims, "O my prophetic soul!" (I.v.40). What are the implications of Hamlet's statement, "To be, or not to be" (III.i.55)?

Punctuating Quotations Use a slash (/) with a space before and after the mark to indicate line division in poetry when quoting three lines or fewer. In "Harlem" by Langston Hughes, the speaker asks, "What happens to a dream deferred? / Does it dry up / like a raisin in the sun?" (1-3).

Credits The Citadel Writing and Learning Center by Amy Battle http://www.citadel.edu/citadel/oth erserv/wctr/quotes.html#when Formatted and revised by Patricia Burgey

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