Insert title here - British Computer Society

Insert title here - British Computer Society

Edinburgh Branch Greening the ICT lifecycle IT as part of the problem and part of the solution! Bob Crooks Chair BCS Green SG Date: 12 January 2011 [email protected] AIM Why are IT devices and services important for Sustainability? Part of the problem => how can we reduce their consumption of energy and other resources across their lifecycle? Part of the solution => what can they do for us to reduce our consumption at home, on the move and at work?

Presentation to insert name here 2 Agenda Background and drivers The Science Government Business People Manufacture and distribution Procurement Use Recycling Disposal Making change happen

Presentation to insert name here 3 The Science Why do anything..? Climate Change => warming, disasters(fires and floods), loss of biodiversity, less to go round more Population growth, 2000 to 2030 of 2.2billion, of which 2.0billion likely to be located in cities* Rising consumption, 5 billion people consume 20% and 1 billion consume 80% (Ericsson) Resource depletion, 2.5 planets for all to have US/EU living standards => rising energy, food and resource costs and the recession => we have to do more with less (Buckminster-Fuller) > energy > resources

> emissions *World Urbanization Prospects: The 2001 Revision, Reality of Climate Change Crown copyright Met Office Model projection Observations Crown copyright Met Office Some anecdotes The usage of the Thames Barrier has increased from once every two years in the 1980s to an average of six times a year over the past five years Ocean pH has risen by 30% since 1900

The worlds reservoirs hold 5 x the amount of water that flows in our rivers The world currently burns some 1,000 barrels of oil a second (BBC) An Inefficient truth GAP (Dec 2007) Some perspectives on IT... Globally Manufacture of ICT, its use and disposal accounts for 2%+ of global CO2 emissions = the aviation industry Man-made CO2 emissions add up to around 49 billion tonnes pa => 1 billion + tonnes from ICT. In UK 10 million office PCs , nearly 50% of adult population use PCs at work - expected to grow to 70% by 2020 Data storage growing by nearly 50% every year

IT consumes 15% of office power rising to 30% by 2020 Expect 45% of Domestic Power to be used for home IT and CE products by 2020 In total ICT power consumption already represents 10% of total UK energy consumption or 4 Nuclear Power stations!! UK Public sector spends some 14b on IT assets and services pa References : (Berkeley National Labs + Global Action Plan + IPCC + Energy Saving trust + Carbon Trust) And the Scientist Can we trust them? I vow to always: 1.Advise against any intervention into the functioning of Earth systems that I believe might harm humanity, the biosphere, atmosphere or other Earth systems upon which our well being depends. 2.Make clear to the public that scientific understanding of Earth systems is limited and that this makes all alterations of Earth systems inherently risky. 3.Describe, to the best of my knowledge and that of my discipline, the specific

risks incurred by any intentional alteration of an Earth system, including the risks to humans, other organisms, and the systems that support life on Earth. 4.Ensure that whatever advice I give, I give for the benefit of humanity, remaining free of intentional distortion or personal bias. People Some observations on us... Want to save the polar bears.. but Fickle, sensitive to Press/Media on spur of the moment, but Hard to change established behaviours, though recognise the need - in all the manifestos! We can make a difference as individuals? - Save power, switch-off devices, low energy modes - Reduce transport impacts Walk /bike not car Rail not plane

Home or mobile working - Sweat the assets and recycle But we dont - Recession forces other priorities - Its too little too late? Why we want to doubt its us? Interview between Brandon Keim (Wired) and Kari Marie Norgaard, a Whitman College sociologist Climate change is disturbing. We dont have to see the impact in everyday life. At time of more information and awareness, we become defensive to create a sense of a good, safe world for ourselves, we screen it out or create doubt . If I dont want to believe that climate change is true, that my lifestyle and high carbon emissions are causing devastation, so convenient to say that it doesnt. People stop paying attention to climate change when they realize theres no

easy solution. People judge as serious only those problems for which actions can be taken. Stanford University psychologist Jon Krosnick Our sense of permanence is threatened, and a sense of guilt is held at bay => So we dont want to believe climate change is happening, feel guilty that it is, and dont know what to do about it? So we pretend its not a problem? . article\The Psychology of Climate Change Denial Managing the lifecycle impacts Managing the lifecycle... Consumption -Power -Consumables -Support/repair Power

Transport Materials Packaging Production Operating IT device Re-use Disposal Components Waste RoHS

Reg NGOs Charities Silver surfers Recycle Heat Air Conditioning Equipment cooling Reclaim WEEE regs Manufacture and delivery

Manufacture/distribution Sourcing of materials=> beware location/transport costs Building products => build to re-use/re-cycle /upgrade a longer life Energy efficient processes Move from commodity to service revenue streams, can optimise use of assets Marketing => eco-labelling, green washing, be credible Delivering => transport, packaging, installation So what...? The manufacturing process for computers is very resource intensive. manufacture of one PC requires 1.7 tonnes of raw materials and water, consumes over ten times the computers weight in fossil fuels. 75% of PC fossil fuel consumption has already happened before the

computer is even switched on for the first time. But others say... GAP Inefficient Truth But : EC Lifecycle for desktop PC Review of research by the European Commission EC Lifecycle for Laptop Procurement Procurement Dont => sweat the asset (compare footprints for build/use/disposal of IT assets) Adopt latest and most stretching standards (EPEAT, Quick Wins..) Seek

- Consolidation of Functions - Device consolidation - Device sharing - Services not assets => dematerialise! - Longer refresh periods Make the case to invest for Green erra Green Washing report - @ Quick Wins.. The UK Government aims to be amongst the EU leaders in sustainable procurement. As part of this commitment Defra have, since 2003, developed and published green government procurement specifications known as Quick Wins. These Quick Wins specifications aim to set a pre-defined level of environmental performance for a range of high priority products purchased by central Government departments.

Information Communication Technology (ICT) products fall into this high priority classification as they account for a large amount of spend and result in a range of environmental impacts which have the potential to be reduced. See : EPEAT? Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) Standard rating (ANSI/IEEE) Gold, Silver, Bronze Covers Toxic reductions Recycled content Energy efficiency (Energy Star rating) Durability Lifecycle extension End-of-life management Corporate responsibility Packaging

Provides an environmental benefits calculator for quantifying benefits 615 products registered Procurements have saved enough power for 1.2million US homes See A Cloud is ... IT services purchased and delivered through a browser over own network (Private) or Internet (Public) -Self service -Dont worry about how, concentrate on what & outcomes -Charge by use a utility -Scaleable in light of demand -Resilient A Cloud Outline architecture The G-Cloud approach

The Public Sector brand for shared ICT services UK Public Sector Organisations will be expected to use G-Cloud Services as their first choice where available. All G-Cloud services will require certification, which will be achieved through sponsorship by a Public Sector organisation or supplier Uncertified services will be available for review, comparison and trial in the Open Zone. Services categories will include Shared Services/Business services Utility applications Common public sector

applications Development platform for custom applications Infrastructure and Service Management 30 Use ... Use => Seek energy efficiency, power management - PCs/laptops - Printers - Network equipment - Servers/data centres => Exploit - Reduce paper, travel, accommodation

- Improve logistics, data, intelligence - Offer new working practices and flexibilities/choices - Challenge of behaviour change HMG Strategy : List of Practical Actions PCs & Laptops Remove active screensavers Switch monitors to standby Shut down PCs after office hours Enable active power management on desktops (standby / hibernate after a defined period of inactivity) Ensure reduce and re-use of equipment that is no longer required but is still serviceable Specify low-power consumption CPUs and high-efficiency Power Supply Units (80% conversion or better) Apply Thin Client technology Behaviours at work and at home?

Survey by Logicalis indicated 85% of employees switch off their home PC when they have finished with it, only 66% turn off work machines after use Www. Some comparisons A computer left on 24/7 will cost about 37 a year, whereas by switching off at night and weekends, the charge can be reduced to about 10 a year - and save an equivalent amount of energy to make some 34,900 cups of coffee Lighting an office overnight wastes enough energy to heat water for 1,000 cups of tea

Carbon Trust HMG Strategy : List of Practical Actions Other office ICT Equipment Apply timer switches to non-networked technology and printers Set default green printing including duplex and grey scale Optimise power-saving sleep mode on printers Printer consolidation Device consolidation Order of magnitudes? A typical window left open overnight in winter will waste enough energy to drive a small car for more than 35 miles

A PC monitor switched off overnight saves enough energy to microwave six dinners Turning off all non essential equipment in an office for one night will save enough energy to run a small car for 100 miles Office kit Monitors account for almost two-thirds of a computer's energy use Office equipment is the fastest-growing area of energy use, accounting for up to 20% of total

energy use. Printing The average British office worker prints 22 pages every working day, and behavioural research suggests that 44% of this is easily avoidable, Over 21% of prints are disposed of before the end of the day. Takes 10 pints of water to make A4 sheet from virgin pulp Defra Print optimisation A London site Current Costs MFPs

Printers Faxes Scanners Total 18 60 22 4 104

Mono Volume 464,376 3,794,136 39,204 0 4,297,716 Colour Volume 0 764,748

0 0 764,748 464,376 4,558,884 39,204 0 5,062,464 0%

17% 0% 0% 15% Capital 28,723.56 14,686.80 6,784.80 270.48

50,195.16 Service 945.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 945.00 Consumables 999.96

110,384.04 443.52 0.00 111,827.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Total Costs pa 30,668.52 125,070.84 7,228.32 270.48 162,967.68 Average cost/A4 6.6p 2.74p

18.44p 0p 3.22p No of Devices Total Volume pa Colour %age Costs pa Other Costs Proposed Costs MFPs

Copiers Printers Faxes Scanners Total 23 0 12 1

3 39 Mono Volume 3,325,596 0 972,120 0 0 4,297,716

Colour Volume 336,792 0 427,956 0 0 764,748 3,662,388 0

1,400,076 0 0 5,062,464 9% 0% 31% 0% 0%

15% Capital 32,990.16 0.00 5,383.80 0.00 253.68 38,373.96 Service

33,971.73 0.00 4,036.35 0.00 0.00 38,008.08 118.80 0.00 29,533.68

0.00 0.00 29,652.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Total Costs pa 67,080.69 0.00 38,953.83 0.00 253.68 106,034.52 Average cost/A4 1.83p

0p 2.78p 0p 0p 2.09p No of Devices Total Volume pa Colour %age Costs pa Consumables Other Costs

Save 60 devices, save 1p per sheet, save 50k pa HMG Strategy : List of Practical Actions Data Centres Server Optimisation a. Storage virtualisation & capacity management b. Convert existing physical servers to virtual servers c. Turn off servers outside their service level agreement, d. Create virtual servers instead of procuring physical new servers. e. Implement a multi-tiered storage solution Reduce cooling in the data centre Remove unused capacity (servers and data disks) Specify power conversion efficient Power Supply Units Ensure re-use of equipment Data centre audit

Servers A medium-sized server has roughly the same annual carbon footprint as an SUV vehicle doing 15 miles per gallon. The power required for a rack of high density server blades can be 10-15 times greater than a traditional server. And we need to cool it with air con units consuming the same power again Defra servers - size matters! Trends of PUE against Data Space area 10.0 20 9.0 8.0 Power Utilisation Effectiveness PUE

Data Space PUE by Area 11.5 7.0 Power (Data Space PUE by Area) 77 6.0 5.0 10 Linear (Data Space PUE by Area)

15 4.0 3.0 120 20 100 2.0 110 80 1.0

0.0 0 20 40 60 80 Area of data space square metres 100 120 140

Applications rationalisation 1,000 applications Removing/consolidating into 300 apps Virtualising as part of a server rationalisation programme seeing reduction of some 700 servers Tiering to ensure 24/7, high resilience, Gold service for apps requiring it, Silver and Bronze levels to reduce costs of operations Whats bad about PSTs? 47 And exercise more ...

Get fitter...! Underlying philosophy EAT LESS Drive down physical and energy resource consumption, EXERCISE MORE Utilise IT services to drive down consumption elsewhere in the organisation BECOME AN OLYMPIC ATHLETE! Sometimes need to invest in more IT to achieve greater reductions elsewhere Ask ... Why print... ? Why so many face to face meetings... ? Why still come to the office...?

Make your IT do the work! Why Print? Meetings laptop, OneNote, handling many windows! projectors to share material, get better switching Reading different presentation modes add notes, set up tasks on screen Team working Sharepoint sites Personal quotas? and...?

Why so many face to face meetings...? Equipment Speakerphones, line connections that work Data points, WIFI Portable IP v/conferencing devices HSBC has installed desktop video conferencing units & reduced air travel by 25%; Alternatives Webinars Teleconferences Sharepoint/Web discussion groups Why still come to the office...? Recent survey findings:

My manager expects me to be in the office Meetings are organised without taking on board flexible working patterns Do not trust home access services, Broadband, 3G etc Home space issues Benefits Save commuting time Save office space Change the culture => you now have the choice! Proving the benefits eg e-conferencing at NE NE Trial : Assumptions 1. All meetings are internal 2. All travel would involve travelling from one office to another 3. The travel mode for meetings would reflect current use of modes (i.e. lots of car and train travel, few taxis, air etc. )

4. No substitution between e-conf modes 5. Meetings involve attendees that would otherwise travel from across the national NE estate 6. Meetings would have been held if e-conferencing was not available NE trial : Proposed rationale 1. Average distance between all NE offices is 159 miles This would mean a round trip for an attendee of 318 miles or 512km 2. Our total carbon footprint for 2007 was 2327 tonnes of CO2 with staff travelling a total distance of 14,803,346 km. Therefore for every kilometre travelled emitted 157 g of carbon. 3. Therefore the carbon saving of each attendee will be 512 x 157 = 80 kg of CO2 4. We should assume that the meeting initiator would not have travelled anyway as they would

have invited everyone to their office. 5. HMRC indicate the cost of fuel at an average of 0.14 per mile (see ) 6. We can posit that each attendee would spend approximately 44.52 to attend a meeting based on a round trip of 318 miles. 7. 2,700 staff in NE across some 50 locations NE : Initial trial run minutes of use NE : Initial trial run projected savings Leading Edge Forum : Seeing the whole energy picture IT Usage ~ 2%

Electricity Emissions Recycling Chemicals Water IT Production ~ 4% Digital GNP Reduced Transportation Smart

Products IT Application >90% Building Controls Real-time Measurement And when youve finished with IT ... Recycle Options Re-use or upgrade first Re-sell asset but not responsibility for disposal? Re-claim

Cleaning assets Costs of getting it wrong Recycling and Disposal Re-use a source of Raw and processed materials Manufacture Equipment use Upgrades and refills

Re-use Component separation Waste disposal (landfill) Schools, charities or sale Cost saving and revenue generation opportunities

Materials separation Revenue generation opportunity Source: SCC; EU; Defra; Eric Williams et al (UN University, Tokyo); NAO; team analysis significant cost savings (up to 90% cheaper to refurbish than to make a new purchase) Disposal of working equipment after refresh

exercise can generate revenue Separate components before crushing, can be worth a lot e.g. 1,800/tonne for RAM Waste disposal suppliers should be ISO 14001 accredited to ensure compliance with relevant legislation 61 Disposal Themes

Costs Tracking Environmentally sound methods of disposal? The art of the possible... Eg..Defra for one month... Summaries Quantity Weight(kg) Percentage Total number of items collected 718

7,249.00 100.00% Items reserved for refurbishmnet & return to client 32 72.00 0.99% Items supplied schools /charities under MAR 265 2802.5

38.66% Items for commercial sale 380 3667.5 50.59% Items of non hazardous waste for material reclamation 27 437.5 6.04%

Items containing hazardous waste 14 269.5 3.72% Totals 718.00 7,249.00 100.00% Total weight of items reutilised

677 6,542.00 90.25% Total weight of items channelled into waste disposal/material reclamation 41 707 9.75% Reclaimed materials from waste items 601

8.29% residue of unrecyclable materials - treated by filterd incineration or chemical rendition 106.00 1.46% total percentage by weight of materials reused or reclaimed ( Your recycling figure) 98.54% 98.54% So what do I care? Were running out of landfill significant tax increases on its use So - 70% of global electronic waste is dumped in China, with most of the rest going to

India and African nations(52). Individuals recycle this equipment by recovering eg by smelting, the valuable metals risk ill-health from exposure to heavy metals => The new mining industry!! People that rely on water supplies potentially contaminated with heavy metals from open e-waste recovery sites and those living near metal works are also put at risk. Those least able to cope/deal with e-waste are those that get our oldest, most unrecyclable kit! FRONTLINE/World Ghana: Digital Dumping Ground | PBS Presentation to insert name here 65

FRONTLINE/World Ghana: Digital Dumping Ground | PBS Presentation to insert name here 66 FRONTLINE/World Ghana: Digital Dumping Ground | PBS Presentation to insert name here 67 FRONTLINE/World Ghana: Digital Dumping Ground | PBS

Presentation to insert name here 68 So where do we start ... Defras story Understand the organisations context Value of Sustainability/Carbon for Defra Intrinsic CRC Power and energy bills (who pays?) Organisation Objectives Customers - farmers, fishermen, food industries.. Stakeholders Man Brd, Ministers, Industry, Commission .. & staff! Defras Landscape Agencies, Suppliers Assets eg out-sourced resources eg data centres, developers, support

Systems and services Lifecycle Value of Greening ICT Measure ICT footprint Position in relation to other footprints Identify hotspots Defras story Set directions ICT world Efficiency and cost drivers IT projects and service developments Procurements (no leaks!) refresh of services/assets and catalogues new technologies Progress with Top Tips and Roadmap Other organisation infrastructures Estates

Travel And we found that... Where are we starting from ? Defra Network ICT baseline is estimated at 10,500 tCO2 p.a. for 10,700 staff Defra Network ICT Emissions IBM Data Centres 38% Defra Work Spaces 35% Defra Server Rooms/Closets

27% 72 Where we are going? A n n u a lis e d E m is s io n s t C O 2 By 2012, against a baseline that could have grown to almost 11,000 tCO2 existing & new initiatives could leave 7,800 to 8,800 tCO2 to be neutralised Defra Network - Annualised Emissions Baseline & Impact of Existing & New Initiatives 12,000.0 10,000.0 8,000.0 6,000.0 4,000.0 2,000.0

- April '08 April '09 April '10 April '11 April '12 April

'13 April '14 By 2012, between 7,800 and 8,800 tCO2 are likely to remain after existing and new initiatives Date ALL existing initiative (ITDR not extrapolated) NEW Printer Ratio Reduction

ITDR benefit extrapolate to full Defra Network Annualised Emissions after Existing & New Initiatives Annualised Baseline Before initiatives - Anticipated Annualised Baseline as at 1April 09 Annualised Baseline Before Initiatives - Static 73 First cut Defra Road Map IBM Global Services A Green roadmap to potential 50% carbon reduction by 2012 including substantial green benefits from ITD Refresh Institutionalised Green Governance Supply Chain Emissions Lower Priority Projects

Zero -50% ITDR Hosted office apps -24 tonnes Preliminary estimates subject to confirmation ITDR Infrastructure Consolidation 2375 tonnes Printer Reduction to 1:14 -295 tonnes Further printer reduction to 1:80 - 58 tonnes

Improve Data Centre PUE 68 tonnes Distributed server consolidation -2170 tonnes Move from desktop to laptop - 504 tonnes 10509 Tonnes 2 More efficient end user power supplies -196 tonnes 2008 Confidential information - Draft for discussion only

2012 Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 And its a Catholic Church! Some key measurement factors... Price/kwH p60/61 Use 8p per kWh as a large consumer including CCL. Kg CO2 / kWH p 11 of the Guidelines - Grid Rolling Use average total GHG 0.54418 kg CO2e per kWh

Latest off-set pricing Government Carbon Offset Facility need OGC logon to access the numbers. Or JP Morgan (who are on the GCOF supplier list) Use 1 tonne = 8.81 Shadow price of carbon. DECC retermed as part of their general carbon valuation model. ttp:// %20uk/carbon%20valuation/[email protected]@_carbonvaluesbriefguide.pdf&filetype=4 see page 3 for the time series table. For the non-traded /non-ETS sector,use the 2010 figure 52 per tCO2e but this rises rapidly over future years so use the time series in any longer term investment case ponents for a Green ICT Strategy programme Summary of next steps

Conclusions... As an individual Switch it off Think before travelling Ask do I need to print? As an organisation Efficiencies=> less energy => less carbon Exploit ICT for carbon efficiency Encourage employee engagement Appoint 'green IT champions Manage assets and estates for energy efficiency This is for the longer term... Set policies for the future through the Green Lens ... Some more web sites...

Quick wins . The Defra Sustainable Development website: htm The OGC Buying Solutions website: . Gov strategy . . General green stuff . Carbon Trust, Energy Star, a sub-set of

Computing, Energy Saving Trust, NetRegs, Intellect, BCS Green IT Specialist Group And what your BCS/CITP is doing... Green Specialist Group see 1,000 members and growing Briefings - Measurement (two published) - Image compression (in preparation) - Batteries(in preparation) NewsShoots

Events and 2 new competitions see Working groups Education - Foundation Certificate - A Green IT book just published! A Wikispace => Presentation to insert name here 81 Presentation to insert name here 82 And more... Data Centre SG

2,000 members Leading players for CoC Data centre modelling tool Data Centre Foundation Certificate To join a Specialist Group check - Presentation to insert name here 83 You must be the change you seek in others

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