Informacijos šaltinių, duomenų citavimas. APA citavimo stilius
HOW TO CITE INFORMATION RESOURCES AND CREATE A REFERENCE LIST? APA CITATION STYLE KTU Library Content 1. Usage of references in your course papers; 2. Checking for plagiarism; 3. In-text citations; 4. Reference lists; 5. Help available at KTU Virtual Library,
subscribed databases, search engines and reference management tools. Academic resources Books and scholarly journals Masters and PhD theses Full-text articles from DBs Reports Reviews Forecasts Avoid using
Newspaper or magazine articles; Textbooks; Unpublished materials; Unreliable online resources. Concepts According to the Law of the Republic of Lithuania on Copyright and Related Rights (1999): Quote means a relatively short passage cited from another work to demonstrate or to make more intelligible authors own statements, or to refer to the views or thoughts of another author in authentic wording. Quotation shall be permissible, without authorisation of the author or any other owner of copyright, to reproduce a relatively short passage of a published work or a work made available to the public, both in the original and translated language, in the form of a quotation in another work, provided that such reproduction is compatible with fair practice and its extent does not exceed that justified by the purpose.
Acknowledging and documenting references in course papers (1) Bibliographical references and list of references should be provided according to rules. Different rules of bibliographical referencing are used worldwide. Usage of citation styles is selected according to the field of study. Social sciences - American Psychological Association (APA) Humanities- Modern Language Association (MLA) Medicine and biology - American Medical Association (AMA) If instructions are absent, it is recommended to use international standards. Acknowledging and documenting references in course papers (2)
Students should: follow the guidance of the supervisor; follow the methodological requirements prepared at the Faculty; prepare the list of bibliography according to APA citation style. The main reasons for citing
It is important to maintain academic integrity. To avoid plagiarism, it is necessary to provide bibliographic references to the cited sources. Citing allows the reader of your work to locate cited documents and check the facts or to look into the details of the cited information. Failure to cite sources may be considered plagiarism and be penalized. All ideas and facts that are obtained from other sources must be properly cited, unless they qualify as common knowledge. !
Plagiarism Plagiarism the act of using the work of another or passing it off as ones own or without their consent, by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgement. Self-plagiarism refers to the practice of presenting ones own previously published work as though it was new. Plagiarism prevention Prevention Usage of special programmes to check for plagiarism: ESAS,
Cross Check; Storing research publications on open access repositories that check for plagiarism automatically; Attention Without proper citation your work will be considered plagiarism. Crediting sources In-text citations A reference list In-text citations (1)
Author-date method of citation requires that the surname of the author and the year of publication be inserted in the text at the appropriate point: (Jones, 1990) Short in-text citation: She stated, Students often had difficulty using APA style (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Miele (1993) found that the placebo effect: which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when only the first groups behaviors were studied in this manner (p. 276). In-text citations (2) Long citations appear in the text as separate paragraphs. A paragraph should be indented. Miele (1993) found the following: The placebo effect which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again [emphasis
added] even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies (Abdullah, 1984; Fox, 1979) were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276) When some parts of the texts are omitted, they are identified as [...]. ATTENTION Citations should be no longer than 40 words. In-text citations (3) Paraprased thougts of authors:
... Kessler (2007) found that among epidemiological samples. ... (Kessler, 2007). Short quotes signaled by inverted commas in the text: Self-regulated learning is a powerful construct in that it allows researchers, firstly, to describe the various components that are part of successful learning (Boekaerts, 1999) In the list of references: Boekaerts, M. (1999). Self-regulated learning: where we are today.
International journal of educational research, 31, 443551. In-text citations (4) One work by one author One recent study finds a genetic link to alcoholism (Jones, 2016). When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text (conjunction and is added): (Jones and Smith, 2016). In-text citations (5)
If cited a work by 3 to 5 authors, the first time a list of all authors is provided: (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry and Harlow, 2015) In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al.": (Kernis et al., 2015) Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.: Harris et al. (2001) argued... (Harris et al., 2001) In-text citations (6)
Two or more works by different authors within the same parentheses should be provided alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list. Citations should be separated with semicolons. Several studies (Miller, 1999; Shafranske and Mahoney, 1998) In-text citations (7) If a work by the authors with the same surname is cited, the first initial of the first name should be provided: (P. Janet, 2000); (R. Janet, 2012) If several authors are cited in one reference:
(P. Janet, 2000; R. Janet, 2012) Arrange two or more works by the same authors (in the same order) by year of publication. Give the authors' surnames once; for each subsequent work give only the date: (Brown, 2009, 2012, 2014) In-text citations (8) Identify works by the same author with the same publication date by the suffixes a, b, c, after the year; repeat the year. The suffixes are assigned in the reference list. (Smith, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c). In the list of references publication date and suffixes a, b, c after the year are added:
Juceviien, P. (2009a). The alternative trajectories towards the learning organization. Social sciences = Socialiniai mokslai, 2(64), 2634. Juceviien, P. (2009b). Controversies of quality perception in higher education and their consequences: in quest for the alternative solutions. Social sciences = Socialiniai mokslai, 3(65), 6065.
Juceviien, P. (2009c). Organizacijos elgsena:vadovlis (2-asis papild. leid.). Kaunas: Technologija. In-text citations (9) If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. First citation (Association of College and Research Libraries [ACRL], 2011) Second citation (ACRL, 2011) First citation (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000) Second citation (MADD, 2000)
In-text citations (10) If there is no author, the title should be moved to authors position, the first significant word of the title should be alphabetized in italics: (Dictionary of psychology, 2013). Several titles with no author should be alphabetized and separated with semicolon: (A political and economic dictionary of Eastern Europe, 2007; Dictionary of media and communication studies, 2015). Using secondary sources
In a reference list only the secondary source should be indicated : Johnson argued that ... (as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102) Allports diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003) Attention Remember to use secondary sources sparingly, only when there is no access to the original source. In-text citation (11) Type of citation Citing for the first time
Further references First citation in brackets Further citation in brackets One author Walker (2014) Walker (2014)
(Walker, 2014) (Walker, 2014) Two authors Walker and Allen (2014) Walker and Allen (2014) (Walker and Allen, 2014) (Walker and Allen, 2014)
3-5 authors Kim, Healey, Goldstein, Hasher and Wiprzycka (2008) Kim et al. (2008) (Kim, Healey, Goldstein, Hasher and Wiprzycka, 2008) (Kim et al., 2008)
6 or more authors Klizien et al. (2014) Klizien et al. (2014) (Klizien et al., 2014) (Klizien et al., 2014) Collective citations Association of College and
Research Libraries (ACRL, 2011) ACRL (2011) (Association of College and Research Libraries [ACRL], 2011) (ACRL, 2011) The main elements for the bibliographical reference
Author(s) or collective of authors Intellectual responsibility for source. If there is no author, editor or editorial board should be provided. Title, subtitle Full title and subtitle should be provided. Date of publishing If it is not the first edition. Place of publication Place, publisher, date. Volume, issue (no. of pages) Number of pages (for books not compulsory). Digital Object Identifier DOI Example Title
Subtitle Author / editor Publisher Place Bibliographical references on a list of references (1) A book (1 author): Surname, N. N. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Place of publication: Publisher.
Light, I. (2006). Deflecting immigration: Networks, markets, and regulation in Los Angeles. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. A book (2 authors): Surname, N. N., & Surname, N. N. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Place of publication: publisher. Light, M. A., & Smith, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Bibliographical references on a list of references (2) A book (3 6 authors): Surname, N. N., Surname, N. N. ( 3 & 5 surnames and) Surname, N. N. (the last
surname). (Year). Title: Subtitle (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher. Alread, J., Leslie, T., & Whitehead, R. (2014). Design-tech: Building science for architects (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. A book (7 and more authors): Surname, N. N., Surname, N. N. ( 6 surnames), ... Surname, N. N. (final surname). (Year). Title: Subtitle. Place of publication: Publisher. Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335. Bibliographical references on a list of references(3)
Collective name: Collective name. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Place of publishing: Publisher. American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC. Bibliographical references on a list of references (4) A book with one or several editors:
Surname, N. N., & Surname, N. N. (Ed. or Eds.). (Year). Title: Subtitle publication: Publisher. (Edition). Place of Cateforis, T. (Ed.). (2013). The rock history reader (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., & Marshall, S. (Eds.). (2015). A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education: Enhancing academic practice (4th ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.
When the issue has neither authors nor editors: Title (Edition). (Year). Place of publication: Publisher. Oxford idioms dictionary for learners of English (2nd ed.). (2013). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bibliographical references on a list of references (5) Book chapter: Surname, N. N. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor ( Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxxx). Location: Publisher. Matonyt, I., & Morkeviius, V. (2010). Threat perception and European identity building: the case of elites in Belgium,
Germany, Lithuania and Poland. In G. Ilonszki (Ed.), Perceptions of the European Union in new member states: A comparative perspective (pp. 5371). London: Routledge. Bibliographical references on a list of references (6) Journal article: Surname, N. N. (Year). Title of the article. Title of journal, volume (issue), xx-xx. Umbrasien, G. (2014). Analysis of cyclical sensitivity in traditional and new sectors: the case of Lithuanian economy. Ininerin ekonomika,
25(4), 420426. Surname, N. N., & Surname, N. N. (Year). Title of the article. Title of journal, volume(issue), xx-xx. Simonaitien, B., & Jaktien, V. (2007). Possibilities of increasing educational potencial of learning citys websites. Socialiniai mokslai, 55(1), 7785. Surname, N. N., Surname, N. N., & Surname, N. N. (Year). Title of the article. Title of journal, volume(issue), xx-xx. Astrauskait, M., Kern, R.M., & Notelaers, G. (2014). An individual psychology approach to underlying factors of workplace bullying. The Journal of
individual psychology, 70(3), 220244. Bibliographical references on a list of references (8) Newspaper articles: Schwartz, J. (2015, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, p. 12. Online newspaper articles: Brody, J. E. (2014, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com No author: As prices surge, Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008, May 5). The Wall Street journal, p. A9.
Pages are not numbered continuously: Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M., & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends pursuit of Yahoo, reassesses its online options. The Wall Street journal, pp. A1, A12. Bibliographical references on a list of references (9) E-resources, e-books: Agrawal, R. C. (2009). Knowledge management tools and techniques. Jaipur, IND: Global Media. Retriewed from
http://www.publications.drdo.gov.in/ojs/index.php/djlit/article/download/276/14 Warner, J., & LaFontaine, D. (2014). Social media design for dummies. Somerset, NJ: Wiley. Retriewed from http://www.ebrary.com/ Bibliographical references on a list of references (10) E-resources, articles with DOI: Adlyt, R., Valanien, L., & Kruinskas, R. (2015). Investment to technologies strengths
and weaknesses: Lithuania in the context of EU. Journal of economics, business and management, 3(6), 633637. doi:10.7763/JOEBM.2015.V3.257 Adlyt, R., Valanien, L., & Kruinskas, R. (2015). Investment to technologies strengths and weaknesses: Lithuania in the context of EU. Journal of economics, business and management, 3(6), 633637. http://dx.doi.org/10.7763/JOEBM.2015.V3.257 E-resources, articles with URL: Vaivada, S., Blinstrubas, A., & Mockeviien, D. (2011). Management of knowledge oriented towards self-development of a personality. Socialiniai 1(22), 7994. Retrieved from http://www.su.lt/bylos/mokslo_leidiniai/soc_tyrimai/2011_22/ vaivada_blinstrubasmockeviciene.pdf tyrimai,
Example Volume Title of the journal Issue Title of the article Authors DOI ...
Bibliographical references on a list of references (11) Dissertations: Surname, N. N. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or masters thesis: Subtitle. Organization where thesis defended. Place of publication: Publisher / Retrieved from ... Mihi Ramrez, A. (2016). Influence of socio-economic factors on the international migration flow in rich-poor countries: Doctoral dissertation. Kaunas University of Technology. Kaunas: Technologija.
Pranauskas, T. (2014). Air contamination by particulate matter from processes of building refurbishment and operation: Doctoral dissertation. Kaunas University of Technology. Kaunas: Technologija. Retrieved from https://aleph.library.lt/ Bibliographical references on a list of references (15) Website: Surname, N./Collective. (Year). Website/title of the document. Retrieved from ... Kaunas University of Technology. (2016). Training sessions in October. Retrieved from http://ktu.edu/lt/biblioteka/naujiena/vasario-menesio-mokymai
Bibliographical references on a list of references (16) Tables, graphics, pictures: Author, N. (date of publication). Title of table, graphics, picture [table, graphic, picture]. Retrieved from ... Statistics Lithuania. (2004). GBP per capita, at curent prices [graphic]. Retrieved from http://db1.stat.gov.lt/ statbank/default.asp?w=1366 List of references
A list of used sources should be provided at the end of work in a separate section. In a list of reference bibliographical records are provided alphabetically with 0,8 cm indent and KTU recomends to numerate records. In a list are included only references cited in work. Works by one authors are provided in alphabethical order. Help Help Help
Bibliographic management tools Subscribed: RefWorks - http://www.refworks.com EndNoteWeb - http://myendnoteweb.com Free: Mendeley - https://www.mendeley.com/ Zotero - http://www.zotero.org Possibilities: Preserve bibIiographical data, summaries and texts. Majority of databases allows direct upload of records. Prepare a list of references according to selected citation style. Install small Write-N-Cite utility program to your computer which allows to
insert cited references and prepare a list of references. Practice (1) Is the reference provided correctly ? ? Student autonomy is an important condition for active self-regulated learning (Boekaerts) Answer (1) Student autonomy is an important condition
for active self-regulated learning (Boekaerts,1999). Practice (2) Is the reference provided correctly? First author: R. C. Calfee Second author: R. R. Valencia Title: APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication Year: 1991 Location: Washington Publisher: American Psychological Association Pages: 135 p. ?
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington: American Psychological Association. Answer (2) Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington: American Psychological Association. Practice (3)
Does the reference provided correctly? First author: M. Astrauskait Second author: R. M. Kern Third author: G. Notelaers Title: An individual psychology approach to underlying factors of workplace bullying Journal: The Journal of Individual Psychology Year: 2014 Location: Austin, TX Publisher: University of Texas Press Pages: 220244 p. Volume, number: vol. 70, no. 3 Astrauskait, M., Kern, R.M. Notelaers, G. (2014). An individual psychology approach to underlying factors of workplace bullying. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 70(3), 220244.
Answer (3) Astrauskait, M., Kern, R.M., & Notelaers, G. (2014). An individual psychology approach to underlying factors of workplace bullying. The Journal of individual psychology,70(3), 220244. Thank you for your attention If you have any questions [email protected]
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