Independent & Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses

Independent & Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses

Clauses, Phrases & Sentence Types English 10 Academic Mrs. Llanos Clause s Independe

nt Dependent Dependent Clauses in Complex Sentences Phrase

s Fragments Senten ce Types Simple

Fused Compound Complex Compound -Complex

Independent & Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses a group of words that contains a subject and a verb Expresses a complete Expresses a complete thought and can stand thought and can stand

alone as a complete alone as a complete sentence sentence Does not express a Does not express a complete thought and

complete thought and cannot stand alone as a cannot stand alone as a sentence sentence Independent & Subordinate Clauses Practice: Identify the italicized words as independent or

subordinate clauses. 1. Before you sign up for a vacation trip, read the fine print. 2. Most tour companies are responsible operators. 3. However, travelers must agree to their terms and conditions. 4. Whenever you see the word liability, read the text carefully. 5. Pay attention to the details as you read.

Practice: Identify the italicized words as independent or subordinate clauses. 6. Tour companies hire outside services, but they arent responsible for mishaps with those services. 7. If the airline loses your luggage, the tour company isnt accountable. 8. When theres no heat in the mountain lodge, the tour

guide can only sympathize. 9. In fact, he or she will probably complain as much as you will. 10. Of course, no one is responsible if Mother Nature rains on your vacation. Simple & Compound Sentences Subject + Verb + Complete Thought

1. Simple Sentence = one independent clause Ex: The cow jumps over the moon. 2. Compound Sentence = two or more independent clauses joined by conjunction(s) Conjunctions = connectors - Independent clauses may be joined by a semicolon (used alone or with a transition).

Ex: The cow jumps over the moon, and the fork ran away with the spoon. Simple & Compound Sentences Simple & Compound Sentences Simple & Compound Sentences

Simple & Compound Sentences Sentence Fragments part of a sentence has been left out A fragment doesnt convey a complete thought. Sentence Fragments

Missing Subject My little sister has a dance recital tonight. Missing Verb My mother sat up all night sewing her

costume. Missing Helping Verb Missing Subject & Verb Subordinate Clause

My sister will dance the part of the leading ladybug. She is scheduled to perform at the end of the recital. I feel I ought to go, since she goes to all my soccer games. OR Since She goes to all my soccer games.

Sentence Fragments In 1865 Western Union needed a telegraph cable. To link America to Europe. Before they could lay the cable across Siberia. Someone needed to survey the land. The task of surveying to George Kennan, an accomplished telegrapher. went Fused Sentences

two or more sentences have been run together without adequate punctuation It doesnt show clearly where one idea begins and another ends. Fused (Run-On) Sentences Missing End Mark

In 1972, a company called Atari created the first video game. It was called Pong. By modern standards it was a very simple game, but it quickly achieved great popularity.

Comma Splice (Two complete thoughts are separated only by a comma.) By modern standards it was a very simple game; it quickly achieved great popularity.

By modern standards it was a very simple game. It quickly achieved great popularity. Fused (Run-On) Sentences Kennan was not a linguist, he thought Russian was impossible to learn.

Fused (Run-On) Sentences Fused (Run-On) Sentences Fused (Run-On) Sentences Fused (Run-On) Sentences

Complex Sentences Subject + Verb + Complete Thought Complex Sentence = one independent clause + 1 or more dependent clauses Ex: While Mary cooks dinner, she watches the evening news. Complex Sentences

Complex Sentences Dependent Clauses in Complex Sentences although what(ever)

where(ver) before that because

when(ever) which(ever) during if

(even) though who(m)(ever) while after

since Dependent Clauses in Complex Sentences ndent Clauses in Complex Sent

Dependent Clauses in Complex Sentences Compound-Complex Sentences Subject + Verb + Complete Thought Compound-Complex Sentence = 2 independent clauses joined by a conjunction + 1 or more dependent clause(s)

Ex: I read Frankenstein, which Mary Shelley wrote, and I reported on it. Compound-Complex Sentences Compound-Complex Sentences Sentence Type Review

Sentence Type Review

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