Importance of Monitoring Insecticide Susceptibility of Mosquitoes
Importance of monitoring insecticide susceptibility of mosquitoes Roxanne Connelly University of Florida Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory Vero Beach, FL http://fmel.ifas.ufl.edu/ http://mosquito.ifas.ufl.edu/ https://www.facebook.com/Florida-M
Source Reduction Removal of sources for mosquito egg-laying Mosquito/vector control Adulticides Organophosphates, pyrethroids Larvicides Bacteria, insect growth regulators Biological controls Fish, copepods
Source Reduction Removal of sources for mosquito egg-laying Adulticides for mosquito control Class - Organophosphates Malathion Naled Class - Pyrethroids
Permethrin Deltamethrin Etofenprox Sumithrin How do you measure the efficacy of an adulticide application?
Adulticides for mosquito control How do you measure the efficacy of an adulticide application? Trapping (pre and post application)? Complaint calls? Disease increase? Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes The selection of a heritable trait in mosquitoes that results in the product
not performing as intended Insecticide Resistance Action Committee Promoting resistance management for public health and agriculture www.irac-online.org Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes how does selection occur? Genetic mutations allow mosquitoes to survive the insecticide application passed on to
offspring Every time a product is used on a mosquito population, resistant individuals are at an advantage Also, consider mosquitoes as non-targets Other inputs Exposure to more than one life stage Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes how does selection occur? Longer lasting products contribute continual
selection pressure Barrier products Cross-resistance can occur where mosquitoes resistant to one class may also be resistant to another class for example, DDT and pyrethroids Multiple class resistance Ops + pyrethroids Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes How do you know if resistance is present in the
mosquitoes you are working to manage? Calibration of spray equipment? Correct rate? Timing? Wind and weather? Baseline information on the susceptibility of local mosquitoes
to the products you are using CDC Bottle Bioassay Annual testing of mosquitoes from same locations Susceptibility monitoring Develop baseline data points Compare to susceptible and resistant strains of the same species Monitor susceptibility over time Monitor field performance When changes in susceptibility are evident, take it
seriously switch classes or switch to larvicides reduce the selection pressure If resistance is detected through the assays How widespread is it? Does the product fail in the field? Field trials Reduce the selection pressure Switch to a different class of adulticide or switch to larviciding
Continue to monitor the mosquito population with bioassays Work with CDC to determine resistance mechanisms for more detailed plan of action CDC Insecticide Susceptibility Bottle Bioassay: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Florida Department of Health - Contract CO064 PI: C. Roxanne Connelly, PhD CO-PI: Jorge Rey, PhD University of Florida, IFAS
Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory 200 9th Street SE Vero Beach, FL 32962 Yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus
Container/Domestic Mosquitoes https://www.cdc.gov/zika/pdfs/guidelines-for-aedes-su rveillance-and-insecticide-resistance-testing.pdf Compare local mosquito population to a susceptible and a resistant strain of the same species Insecticide susceptibility status of
mosquito populations tested using the CDC Bottle Bioassay is defined by this algorithm: https://www.cdc.gov/zika/pdfs/guidelines-for-aedes-surveillance-and-insecticide-resistance-testing.pdf. All 3 populations of wild Aedes aegypti that were tested, Indian River, Miami, and Pinellas are resistant to
permethrin at the CDC diagnostic dose. http://www.floridamosquito.info/insecticide-susceptibility-testing-results/ Funded by Florida Department of Health; 2016 2017; #C0064 Aedes albopictus- 2016 RESISTANT GULF chlorpyrifos
Deltamethrin Etofenprox Malathion Naled Permethrin Prallethrin Sumithrin (dphenothrin) INDIAN RIVER LEON
DEVELOPING RESISTANCE SOUTH WALTON GOLDSBY SOUTH WALTON RESTORE SUSCEPTIBLE ST. JOHNS
Pasco SUSCEPTIBLE Pinellas St. Lucie What do the results of the bottle bioassay imply? Presence of individuals that can survive treatments Resistance in the field? The following are results of some preliminary caged field
trials using products with 4 different active ingredients. These trials were a single pass of the truck for each ingredient at the rates that are currently being used. ---Janet McAllister - CDC Zenivex (.0035 lb/acre) Biomist (0.0035 lb/acre) Deltaguard (0.00055 lb/acre) Duet (0.0018 lb/acre sumethrin) % Mortality of Ae. aegypti 19%
33% 80% 44% %M Insecticide resistance prevention and management Rotate insecticide classes switching from one pyrethroid or organophosphate to another does not help
Target a different life stage switch from adulticides to larvicides Limit the number of applications at a given site Implement source reduction when possible Susceptibility monitoring program Take home messages Important to know if the product you are buying is effective against the mosquitoes you are targeting We must protect the limited products that are
available for public health mosquito control It is easier to prevent insecticide resistance than to reverse it. The time to start susceptibility monitoring is now, not during the middle of a public health emergency The practice of using an insecticide until resistance becomes a limiting factor is rapidly eroding the number of suitable insecticides for vector control. --Hemingway and Ranson, 2000 Hemingway J, Ranson H. 2000. Insecticide resistance
in insect vectors of human disease. Annual Review of Entomology. 45:371-391. Resources http://www.irac-online.org/ https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/education_training/ lab/bottlebioassay.html http://www.who.int/whopes/guidelines/en/ http://www.floridamosquito.info/insecticide-susce ptibility-testing-results/
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