IMPLICA TURES PRESEN TED BY: JASMIN 2 IMPLICATURES CONVERSTIONAL IMPLICATURES HOW TO RECOGNIZE CNOVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURES GRICES CONVERSATIONAL MAXIMS
THE CO-OPREATIVE PRINCIPLE QUALITY QUANTITY RELATION CONTEXT CANCELLABILATY DEPENDENCE the relation of conversational and propositions NON-DATACHTABILITY CALCULABILITY MAXIMS NATURE
MANNAR HOW IMPLICATURES ARISE STANDARD FLOUTING IMLICATURES THE MAXIMS 1.CONERSATIONAL IMPLICATURES :PROPOSITIONS OR ASSUMPTIONS NOT ENCODED A:Am I in time for supper B:Ive cleared the table
What does Bs proposition? 3 4 CONTEXTDEPENDENCY DEFEASIBILI TY/ CANELLABILI TY HOW TO RECOGNI ZE CONVER SATIONA L IMPLICA TURES:
CALCULABILIT Y NONDATECHABILITY CONTEXT DEPENDENCE CONVERSATION AL IMPLICATURES A:HAVE YOU CLEARED THE TABLE AND WASHED THE DISHES? B:IVE CLEARED THE TABLE. ENTAILMENTS -JOHN KILLED THE
WASP. -THE WASP DIED. 5 CONVENTIONA L IMLICATURES -haven't cleared the table. I haven't cleared the table yet. DEFEASIBILITY/CANCELLABILITY: additional material Conversational Implicatures: WITHOUT CONTRADICTION OR ANOMALY.
CONVENTIONAL IMPLICATURES anomaly and contradiction A-did the minister attend the meeting and sign the agreement? b(1)-the minister attended the meeting. B(2)the minister attended the meeting; a statement will be issued later with regard to the agreement. -John hasnt arrived yet: I know for a fact he is not coming. detachability: -Conversational Implicatures: Have you cleared the table and washed the dishes? is tied to meaning, and not to form.
Ive taken all the things off the table. Ive cleared the table Conventional Implicatures: it I tied to lexical items 1-john didn't manage to walk as far as the cross road. 1=2,2=1 2-john attempted to walk as far as the cross road. 3 = 2,1 3- John didnt walk as far as the crossroads. 7 8
Calculability: on the basis of conventional information. -Have you seen anything of Clive recently ? Lets leave in fifteen minutes using statable general principles meaning together with contextual conversational implicatures to propositions Propositions : the information conveyed by the overt linguistic form the of the utterance needs to be supplemented by processes
of completion and/or enrichment. Implicatures are assumptions and proposition which cannot be directly derived from overt linguistic form by completion or enrichment 1.A: Did I get invited to the conference? 1. A: What time is your train? B: Your paper was too long. B: 10.30.(completion) 2.My train leaves at 10.30.(enrichment) 2.Speaker A did not get invited to the conference. 9
Grices conversational maxims Co-operative princple Make yoiur conversational contribution such as is required ,at the stage which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged 10 The maxim of quality :concerned with truth 11 telling Dont say what you belive to be false
Oh ,I like its red cover Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence Jenny, how do you like this novel? The maxim of quantity :the amount of information Make your contribution as informative as is required for the current purposes of the exchange in which you are engaged
Baked beans on toast food I had 87 warmed-up baked beans (although eight of them were slightly crushed) served on a slice of toast 12.7 cm. by 10.3 cm. which had been unevenly toasted... Do not make your contribution more informative than is required What did you have for lunch today? 12
13 The manner of relation:be A-Have you seen relevent Mary today? He is a polite man and works sometimes on time. B-I'm breathing Daniel, is Morgan good as a finance manager? 14 The maxim of manner: Avoid
obscurity Avoid ambiguity Be orderly Avoid unnecessary prolixity A-The lone ranger rode off into the sunset and jumped on his horse. B-The lone ranger rode off into the sunset after jumping on his horse How Implicatures arise? Two mechanisms standard Implicatures scalar Implicatures
15 quality manner quantity flouting the maxim relation 16 1.standard Implicatures requires the assumption that the speaker is doing their best to follow the co-operative principle, even though the result may not be the best, from the point of view of the hearer -(standard motorist)Ive run out of petrol
-(passer -by)there is a garage just round the corner. 1.1.scalar imlicatures :the use of certain have you read any of Hardys novels? 17 scales of value, one cancels the others . Ive read some of them Few some most all
2. Flouting the maxim: flouting of the maxims in circumstances in which: it is obvious to the hearer that the maxims are being flouted, it is obvious to the hearer that the speaker intends the hearer to be aware that the maxims are being flouted, there are no signs that the speaker is opting out of the co-operative principle. The maxim of quality: -the mushroom Omelette wants his coffee with. The maxim of quantity: -Mother: What did you do? -Daughter: (with exaggerated patience, elaborates a long list of totally uninteresting
details (The Implicature is that the mother is too damn curious, and overworried about her daughter's doings. the maxim of relation : A: I say, did you hear about Mary's... B: Yes, well, it rained nearly the whole time we were there. The maxim of manner: -What did Lura did when she heard that Lauren's boat has arrived ? - Lura ran to the pier and jumped. Consider : Lura jumped and ran to the pier when she heared that Laurens boat has arrived 18 19 Thanks!
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