European Imperialism Imperialism The practice of a powerful nation building an empire by establishing control of weaker nations or regions. Old Imperialism (1500-1800) Colonization by European nations during the Exploration and the Commercial Revolution. Declined by the early 19th century due to high cost and rising resistance caused by nationalism.

Modern Imperialism (Since mid 1800s) Industrialization began a renewed interest in expanding their territories and empire building. Imperialist nations are referred to Mother Countries Motives for Imperialism by European Countries

Cheap supply of raw materials from inhabited lands. To create markets for the sale of manufactured goods

To provide investors opportunities for safe investment of surplus capital To provide outlets for growing populations in mother countries. To increase national prestige and provide a place in the sun for the growing middle class. Allowed Missionaries to spread Christianity throughout the world. To spread the advance western culture to what they considered backward people of the world. Known as White Mans Burden (Social Darwinism). Excerpt from Rudyard Kiplings

White Mans Burden - 1899 Take up the White Man's burden-Send forth the best ye breed-Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Types of Imperialist Control Colonies or Annexation A foreign nation gains total control over a region and its native population. It becomes part of the

empire and is under complete control of the mother country. Protectorate The native ruler remains in power but the mother country controls affairs behind the scene. Condominium Regions in which two nations ruled as partners

Types of Imperialist Control Concession An underdeveloped country grants economic rights and privileges to foreign businesses or governments in return for the building of infrastructure to develop the mining or collection of

natural resources. Sphere of Influence Regions in which a nation is given exclusive economic privileges that are respected by other nations. Mandate (Trusteeship) Areas of defeated nations are put under control of victorious nations following war. The Berlin Conference (1884-85) * Purpose Otto von Bismarck convened the Great

European Powers to determine procedures on how to divide Africa and provide for orderly establishment of colonies. Africans leaders were not included. The Scramble for Africa French Control of North and West Africa French troops invaded Algeria in 1830. They were initially repelled but eventually gained control. By the late 19th Century, French interests in Northern Africa

increased: Many French citizens began moving into Northern Africa French Industrialists desired more access to the raw materials and markets . The French gained control of Tunis (now known as Tunisia) by 1881 and Morocco by 1904 France eventually controlled most of North and West Africa

Frances Colonial Empire Central Africa The Belgian Congo In 1877, the famous American journalist/explorer Henry M Stanley explored the area around the Congo River in central Africa King Leopold II of Belgium personally funded another expedition (led by Stanley) into the Congo region In 1884-85, at the Berlin Conference, Leopold was granted a large portion of Central Africa, surrounding the Congo River. It becomes known as Congo Free State It actually serves as his own private plantation Between 1885 and 1908, under Leopolds authority, the rubber

companies brutally force the native inhabitants of the Congo River area to extract rubber and other products from the forests Those who do not extract enough are killed or mutilated. Beginning in 1906, the British press began to run articles on these atrocities drawing world wide attention. In 1909, Leopold is forced to give up control. It becomes an official Belgian colony called the Belgian Congo British Control of Egypt (and the Suez Canal) In 1859, a French entrepreneur, Ferdinand de Lesseps, established a company to construct the Suez Canal with the blessing and assistance of

Egypts rulers The Suez Canal was opened by 1869 (at great expense to the Egyptians) Because of huge debts Egypt sold its shares in the Suez Canal project to Britain in 1875. After an uprising was put down by English troops in 1882. Egypt became a protectorate of England. It remained this way until 1954 British Colonial Influence in Southern Africa First settled by the Dutch in 1652 Cape Colony

Over time these Dutch settlers, became known as as the Boers. As the British began to settle in South Africa, the Boers began migrating to the northeast to escape British rule and formed two independent Boer republics (1)Transvaal and (2) Orange Free State. Major gold and diamond deposits were found in Southern Africa in 1868 causing more British fortune-seekers to migrate into the area. These lands, many of which belonged to a large tribe known as the Zulus, were annexed by the Cape Colony in 1871. In 1879, the British and Zulus went to war. In spite of early defeats, the British finally manage to win the war. The remainder of the Zulu lands were annexed to the Cape Colony

and granted to British settlers British Colonial Influence in Southern Africa The Influence of Cecil Rhodes Cecil Rhodes was a powerful and wealthy businessman who enriched himself with diamond mining in Cape Colony He founded De Beers Consolidated Diamond Mining Company Rhodes created two more British colonies through takeover of tribal lands. They become

Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) Rhodes became the Prime Minister of the Cape Colony The Boer War Gold was discovered in the Transvaal in 1886 British prospectors and settlers quickly move into the Boer republics Under the leadership of Rhodes, the Cape Colony attempted to annex the Transvaal and Orange Free State by force in 1896 The attempt fails and Rhodes is forced to resign The British begin the Boer War to capture these areas

The War lasts from 1899 1902 The Boers at first succeeded using guerrilla tactics The British respond by sending in several hundred thousand troops. They scorch Boer farms and set-up prison camps for captured Boers (including women and children) The British win, but experience an international public relations nightmare for their treatment of the Boers Establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910 The settlers of European ancestry vote to establish the Union of South Africa Three major groups of people Whites (entirely of European ancestry)

Coloreds including ethnic Indians and peoples of mixed African and European ancestry Native Africans In 1913 South Africas Parliament passed the Native Lands Act Only White South Africans had the right to vote Native African peoples only allowed to live and own land on reservations This created the South African system of Apartheid, which lasted until the 1990s In response Mohandas K. Gandhi, a lawyer living in South Africa, urged his fellow Indians to peacefully disobey these laws Black and colored peoples form the South African Native National Congress, the forerunner of the African National Congress protest these

racist policies By 1900 Europe controlled over 75% of the Worlds territory and 25% of the Worlds Population Britain Is Everywhere! The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire India: The British Raj The new Empress of India receiving the

Jewel in the Crown of her Empire. British Imperialism in India British Imperialism in India

India around 1750 Power rested in the hands of local Muslim and Hindu landed nobility. India was a collection of separate principalities The British East India Company influence and power in India began increasing with presence mostly in the Eastern coastal regions by about 1750. The company recruited and funded their own branch of the British army containing British as well as Indian troops called Sepoys British Imperialism: India Economic Opportunity

Increase economic output Increase private land ownership (to increase cash crop and raw material production) Increase jobs in trading ventures Increase power and wealth to the local princes who often supported the British

British Imperialism: India Problems of British Rule Women and people of the lesser castes of India did not benefit from British policies

New taxes were imposed on the people. Only the higher castes socially and financially benefited directly from British policies. The poor got even poorer Collapse of the textile industry due to Britains successes in textile industrialization and utilization of Indian cotton Decreasing loyalties of the Sepoy regiments British Imperialism: India The Sepoy Rebellion

Sepoys contained a mixture of ethnic and religious groups all forced to live and work together even though some did not get along New procedure as of 1856 Some Sepoys were to be ordered to be stationed abroad (Ocean travel was forbidden by Hindu law) Gun loading procedures of new Enfield Rifles

open paper cartridge (sealed with cow or pork fat) Hindu soldiers upset cow is a sacred animal Muslim soldiers upset pig is an unclean animal and consumption is forbidden by Islam law Due to these issues, the Sepoy regiments mutiny against the British British Imperialism: India The Sepoy Rebellion

The Sepoys were joined by Indian peasants The British army finally put down this rebellion by March 1858 The British Government took firm control of India as a colony in 1858 The last Mughal Emperor was removed from power British government took over control of India from the British East India Co. The British Government establishes a centralized colonial government and social structure British Imperialism: India

Secretary of State for India British government official, stationed in London, who effectively controlled government policies relating to India A Viceroy (appointed by Queen Victoria) Based in Delhi, this official acted as the queens representative on site and lived in great splendor in Delhi as a show of authority Queen Victoria issued a proclamation affecting India in 1858

All Indians were granted equal protection under British law All Indians were free to practice their religion and social customs Local princes (so long as they remained loyal to Britain) would be allowed to have the same local control over their territories She was named Empress of India in 1877 An Indian colonial bureaucracy was established British Imperialism: India

Britain made economic and infrastructural changes in India after1857 British government spends millions in building ports, harbors, bridges, canals, railroads, telegraph lines, sanitation systems and plantations Much of these were built and run by British companies and executives employing Indian workers Even though sanitation improvements were made, 4 in 1000 Indians died of cholera until the early 20th century

Increased production of raw materials and cash crops Increased importation of (British-made) manufactured goods British Imperialism: India Effects on Indian Colonial Society

Very little social changes as most Indians remained in poverty Most Indians benefitted little from the infrastructural improvements Destruction of Indian cottage industries due to British manufacturing and importation Rise in prosperity in Indias middle classes Sporadic famine episodes caused by an overproduction of cotton on lands once used to grow wheat Rise in Indian Nationalism.

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