I. Introduction to Bonding

I. Introduction to Bonding

Ch. 6 & 7 - Chemical Bonding I. Introduction to Bonding (p. 161 163) C. Johannesson I II III IV A. Vocabulary Chemical Bond attractive force between atoms or ions

that binds them together as a unit bonds form in order to decrease potential energy (PE) increase stability C. Johannesson A. Vocabulary CHEMICAL FORMULA IONIC COVALENT Formula Unit Molecular Formula

NaCl CO2 C. Johannesson A. Vocabulary COMPOUND more than 2 elements 2 elements Binary Compound NaCl

Ternary Compound C. Johannesson NaNO3 A. Vocabulary ION 2 or more atoms 1 atom Monatomic Ion Na+

Polyatomic Ion C. Johannesson NO3- B. Types of Bonds IONIC COVALENT Bond Formation e- are transferred from metal to nonmetal

e- are shared between two nonmetals Type of Structure crystal lattice true molecules Physical State solid liquid or gas Melting

Point high low Solubility in Water yes usually not Electrical Conductivity yes (solution or liquid)

no Other Properties C. Johannesson odorous B. Types of Bonds METALLIC Bond Formation e- are delocalized among metal atoms

Type of Structure electron sea Physical State solid Melting Point Solubility in Water Electrical Conductivity Other Properties

very high no yes (any form) malleable, ductile, C. Johannesson lustrous C. Bond Polarity Most bonds are a blend of ionic and covalent characteristics. Difference in electronegativity

determines bond type. C. Johannesson C. Bond Polarity Electronegativity Attraction an atom has for a shared pair of electrons. higher e-neg atom lower e-neg atom + C. Johannesson C. Bond Polarity Electronegativity Trend (p. 151) Increases up and to the right. C. Johannesson

C. Bond Polarity Nonpolar Covalent Bond e- are shared equally symmetrical e- density usually identical atoms C. Johannesson C. Bond Polarity Polar Covalent Bond e- are shared unequally asymmetrical e- density results in partial charges (dipole) -

+ C. Johannesson C. Bond Polarity Nonpolar Polar Ionic View Bonding Animations. C. Johannesson C. Bond Polarity Examples:

Cl2 HCl 3.0-3.0=0.0 Nonpolar 3.0-2.1=0.9 Polar 3.0-0.9=2.1 Ionic NaCl C. Johannesson

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