Opened? 18661876 L/O To identify how and why Korea was forced to sign unfair treaties with Japan and the West King Kojong of Korea, 1852-1919 Choson Korea 13921910 Korea had been ruled by the Choson (Yi) Dynasty since 1392. Korea was governed by a hereditary Monarchy and society was influenced heavily by
Chinese culture: Buddhism & Confucianism. Unlike Japan, Korea didnt have an entrenched military class by instead, society was dominated by an upper class called the Yangban. King Taejo of Joseon Choson Korea 13921910 Korea had also been invaded many
times. The Japanese led by Toyotomi Hideyoshi had invaded in 1592 and 1597. Toyotomi Hideyoshi The Manchus had also invaded in 1627 and 1636 before moving on to invade China in 1644, creating the Qing Dynasty. The Manchus forced Korea into paying tribute to China, becoming a tributary state of Chinas.
Shunzhi Emperor Choson Korea 13921910 After the Manchu invasion and until the 1850s, the Choson government followed a policy of seclusion. All travel and contact with foreigners was forbidden except from the occasional contact with the Japanese and tributary missions to China.
Koreas continued seclusion in the 19th century earned it the nickname Hermit Kingdom. The General Sherman Incident In July 1866, the US ship General Sherman arrived with the aim of forcing the Hermit Kingdom to trade. The mission ended in bloodshed with the crew taking Korean officials
hostage and attacking civilians. The outraged Koreans set fire to the ship and killed all on board. Apparently Kim Il Sungs greatgrandfather led the attack on the Sherman! The Opening of Korea French Attempt The French were next in October 1866. 7 ships were sent to open up trade. The French attacked the island of Kanghwa near Seoul but were
forced to abandon it due to being outnumbered. The French were unable to negotiate a treaty so left in defeat. Admiral Ross French landing at Kanghwa The Opening of Korea USA Angered by the capture and
murder of the crew of the General Sherman in 1866, the Americans sent a fleet of 5 heavily armed ships to Korea in 1871. They had 85 guns and over 1200 sailors and marines. They again wanted to force Korean to trade. Council of war on board USS Colorado, June 1871
The Opening of Korea USA Despite being peaceful at first, a misunderstanding led to fighting. The Americans destroyed all the Korean forts on Kanghwa Island but the Koreans still refused to discuss trade. They had no choice but to leave on 3rd July 1871. The Koreans were even more suspicious of foreigners.
Korean dead at Kanghwa Japanese Attempts The Japanese were next to try. In 1873 the 21 year old King Kojong, eager to rule on his own, forced the Taewongun out of power and sought friendship with Japan. Heungseon Taewongun (Prince of the Great Court and Regent)
Followers of Queen Min opposed this move. Korea was divided. Japan decided to seize on this desire for friendship by supporting the King. King Kojong of Korea Empress Myeongseong known as Queen
Min Imperial Japanese Navy, in Pusan, on its way to Kanghwa Island, January 16th 1876 The Opening of Korea Japan In February 1876 the Japanese raided the city of Pusan and was fired upon by Koreans on Kanghwa Island. Using this as a pretext, the
Japanese with 400 soldiers overran the Island and raided the Korean countryside. They then pressurised the Korean government into signing a treaty. The Treaty of Kanghwa The treaty recognised Korean independence but was in reality an unfair treaty. The ports of Pusan, Wonsan and Inchon were opened to
Japanese trade. Japan was exempt from customs duties and given extraterritoriality rights. A Japanese consul was also stationed in Seoul. Consequences of the Treaty The treaty was a humiliation to Korea and opinion with Korea was divided should they modernise like Japan or return to the Confucian past?
Modernisers supported the King whilst conservatives supported the Queen. The Queen would eventually be murdered by the Japanese in 1895. Consequences of the Treaty In 1882 the USA once again attempted to sign a trade treaty and was successful KoreaAmerican Treaty of Friendship
and Trade. Similar treaties are signed with other Western powers. China is angered by what it views as Japanese meddling in its tributary state. Questions 1. Read the article Opening the Hermit Kingdom and answer the questions attached. 2. Read the article on the Korea: From Hermit Kingdom to Colony and
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