How to get your Students to Prepare for Every Class

How to get your Students to Prepare for Every Class

How to get your Students to Prepare for Every Class Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) A. Gavrin, IUPUI http://webphysics.iupui.edu/nfw_fall14/index.html 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 1 A few of your comments and requests SnowBall: How to effectively motivate students? The book is boring and ... there is such a resistance to read their $100 book. Larry: I'm most worried about trying to keep the students engaged. What questions have worked well and which haven't? Sam: My two questions are: (1) How do you get students to spend significant time and effort on JiTT?

(2) What are the best strategies for implementing JiTT without adding significant prep time? 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 2 A few of your comments : Any tricks on how to efficiently implement such methods without taking a drastic cut into our research and personal time? Ludwig van Beethoven: Also, I would like to discuss how much administrative time this strategy demands of the instructor. AND Many requests for specific details! 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop

3 Outline Introduction Just-in-Time Teaching Background Implementation Aside: How to get great student evaluations Assessment Getting started 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 4 How did you decide how to teach? LFC81: My teaching style tends to be based on how I

was taught James: partly based on centuries of tradition, partly based on what I enjoy doing, partly based on my own learning experiences Johnny: Haven't given as much thought to how as to what. Most of my classes were modeled after the classes I took :I have made most decisions about how to teach based on what my colleagues and former (good) professors did. I realize this is not the greatest, hence my attending the workshop 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 5 How did you decide: :I have made most decisions about how to teach based on what my colleagues and former (good) professors did. I realize this

is not the greatest, hence my attending the workshop! What commonalities do you see? What Problems? 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 6 Danger of using own experience Classes designed for professors or pre-professors Problem: Students do not learn like we do Not motivated to be experts Need more time to think Not as good at working alone Not as good at judging their own performance Many under greater pressure See R. Felder references on web site

11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 7 Digression Could have spent time collecting data Instead, spent time discussing it Same content covered at greater depth 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 8 One solution: Active learning Proven effective for regular students and excellent ones

Used extensively at MIT, RPI, Harvard, Univ. of Illinois, other research universities Also many small colleges (prestigious and not), community colleges, K-12 schools Close to apprenticeship or relationship between PhD student and advisor 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 9 Outline Introduction Just-in-Time Teaching Background Implementation Aside: How to get great student evaluations Assessment

Getting started 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 10 The (original) settings IUPUI: Public, urban university 30,000 students, almost 100% live off campus Most work > 25 hours/week Large classes at intro level (150-200) Davidson College: Liberal arts college Highly selective, small classes United States Air Force Academy: Military All students take physics, even history majors All play sports, train for military 11/14/14

New Faculty Workshop 11 What is JiTT? Oleg: Save time (by having students prepare for their class at home) to focus on difficult concepts and misconceptions in class. Sam: JiTT is a method of teaching where you require feedback from students prior to class. It has the effect of (i) forcing them to prepare for class and (ii) allowing you to customize class activities to focus on building their existing knowledge and addressing problem areas. 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 12

What is JiTT? bob: Instructor ask questions relevant to class material in advance of the lecture, with a due date before the lecture, allowing the instructor to modify the class plan in response to the student's responses. JS: It sounds a lot like a flipped classroom, although there's more emphasis on feedbackinformed instruction than on in-class problem solving. 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 13 Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) World Wide Web Homework

Classroom Assignment Design 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 14 Just-in-Time Teaching Adaptable Combines high tech with high touch WarmUp Exercises = Online, pre-class reading quiz: Due few hours before class A few open-ended conceptual questions Cover that days material

11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 15 Example Question: Is it possible to add heat to an ideal gas without changing its temperature? If it is possible, please explain how it is done. It is not possible because the internal energy of an ideal gas only depends on the temperature.... the internal energy will increase when the temperature rises. If you add heat to a system while the system is doing the corresponding amount of work, the temperature will not change. It is possible to add heat to an ideal gas without it changing its temperature by the gas receiving the heat, and the atoms of that gas getting excited enough to disperse that heat as fast as they receive it 11/14/14

New Faculty Workshop 16 What makes a good Warmup? BB: (a) It must help students understand basic concepts. (b) It must encourage students to prepare for class. (c) It must help faculty adjust the pace of their courses . Eric: A good "warmup exercise" is one that challenges concepts and requires critical thinking about the physics behind the processes. It doesn't have to have a correct answer, but lead to though process development. 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 17

What makes a good WarmUp? : One that has more qualitative questions and requires a deeper level of thinking. It is helpful if it provides quotes such that the professor can refer back to responses from the warmup exercises. nick: Try to think about the logic that the next class will follow. Not focus on the mathematical details but on the procedure. 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 18 Another Digression JiTT described in your words preview of important concepts Jargon already familiar (JiTT, Warmup) Big idea (connect class to HW) already

present Creates time for deeper discussion. 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 19 One more thing Woody: A good warm-up exercise should engage the student's interest before walking in the classroom and lead to a change in attitude about how to use the classroom time for the student's benefit. 11/14/14

New Faculty Workshop 20 Online archive of Warmup exercises http://webphysics.iupui.edu/warmup/ physics_archive.html Introductory physics (2 semester sequence) Statistical/Thermal Physics (2 sets) Intermediate Mechanics (2 sets) Modern Physics, Quantum Mechanics

Intermediate E&M (2 semester sequence) Mathematical Methods Optics, Intro Astronomy Needed: Condensed matter, other specialties 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 21 smartPhysics http://www.smartphysics.com/smartphysics/ default.aspx

Calculus-based Mechanics, E&M Pre-lecture videos replace reading (~20 min.) Small, paperback text Integrated homework, checkpoints Authored at UIUC by Gladding, Stelzer, Selen Published by W. H. Freeman ~$50/semester 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 22 Choosing and using student responses Always say something positive (see last example) This is true, but what if something else occurs simultaneously This makes sense, but something is missing

This is a great response how would we know how much heat to add? This is correct, but the reasoning isnt quite right This has a great beginning, but more could be added 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 23 Tips and Pitfalls Explain methods and purpose on first day No need to review all responses before class; sample for useful quotes, grade later Focus on students strengths, too, not just misconceptions and other problems. Use answers from many students: not favorites. Do not isolate warmups use throughout session Must be routine. Do not start/stop during semester Upper level students can handle more exploratory

questions, connections to prerequisites Faculty cedes some control! 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 24 Results Students better prepared for class Familiar with jargon Given thought to ideas Faculty better prepared for students Misconceptions identified Just in time adjustment to coverage Class time spent more productively Students interact during class 11/14/14

New Faculty Workshop 25 How to get great student evaluations First five minutes are critical! Be a leadercollege is hard, and students look to you for motivation, dont disappoint them. Build a teamlet students know that you and they are working towards a common goal. Earn trusttake time on the first day of class to explain what you are doing and why. Hold yourself and your students to high standardsif you work hard, they will too. 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 26 Outline

The Challenges Just-in-Time Teaching Background implementation Aside: How to get great student evaluations Assessment Getting started 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 27 Study Habits (N=155, biology) Q1 Do the WarmUps help you stay caught up? Q2 Do you Cram before tests in this course? Q3 Do you Cram in your other courses? A students B students

C students D students F students 11/14/14 1- Yes 85% 89 % 89% 84% 92% 2- Yes 14% 39% 47% 68% 58% New Faculty Workshop

3- Yes 43% 61% 68% 68% 58% 28 Retention (N~80-150/semester) A t tr itio n in C a lc u lu s 1 6 4 A t t r it io n in B io lo g y N 1 0 0 6 0 .0 35 30 D FW ) 4 0 .0 3 0 .0

A tt r itio n ( % A ttr itio n ( % D FW ) 5 0 .0 2 0 .0 1 0 .0 25 20 15 10 5 0 .0 0

Sp97 F97 Sp98 Sem ester 11/14/14 F98 Sp99 F99 Sp00 F00 Sp01

F01 Sp02 F02 Sp03 S em ester New Faculty Workshop 29 Cognitive (biology, N~200) Final exam questions tied to no interventions additional homework

problems WarmUp or cooperative learning questions WarmUp and cooperative learning questions 11/14/14 % Gain Average Normalized (Post%-pre%) Gain %G = 15% = 0.167 (25%-10%) %G = 17% =0.207

(35%-18%) %G = 45% = 0.511 (59%-14%) %G = 56% = 0.636 (68%-12%) New Faculty Workshop 30 Affective (E&M, N~60) 1. Do you feel that the warm-up assignments helped your professor make good use of the classroom time? 2. Do other professors have better ways to determine how class time

should be used? 3. Do you feel that the warm-up assignments helped your professor focus on important topics in class? 4. Do your other professors have effective methods for focusing on important topics in class? 5. Did the warm-up assignments help your professor get a good feel for what the students know? 6. Do your other professors have effective methods for getting a feel for what their students know? 7. Do you think the warm-up assignments help your professor get students involved during the lecture? 8. Do your other professors have effective methods for getting their students involved in lecture? 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop Yes 47 87% Yes 14 26%

Yes 49 91% Yes 33 61% Yes 42 81% Yes 20 38% Yes 37 70% Yes 23 43% No 7 13% No 40 74% No 7 13% No 21 39%

No 10 19% No 33 62% No 16 30% No 31 57% 31 Student Comments This was a fantastic course. It was the hardest course Ive taken yet, but also the most fun. I think the WarmUps are a good idea because they give students a chance to think about the material prior to lecture. "This course was very well structured. It was obvious that a lot of time was spent in preparation for it. "152 & 251 have made me reach more than any courses I have taken. Dont tell anyone, but I think I will greatly miss my physics

class. 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 32 Summary JiTT is based on feedback between homework and classroom WarmUp exercise: a pre-class, online reading quiz Improved study habits, retention, content knowledge, morale. Instructor knowledge of student difficulties Easily adopted and adapted 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 33

Outline The Challenges Just-in-Time Teaching Background implementation Aside: How to get great student evaluations Assessment Getting started 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 34 Getting started: http://webphysics.iupui.edu/nfw_fall14/index.html Warmup writing guide Archive of donated warmup questions

These slides My email Dont forget to fill out the evaluation form! 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 35 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 36 smartPhysics checkpoint 1. Two equal, but opposite charges are placed on the x axis. The positive charge is placed at to the left of the origin and the negative charge is placed to the right, as shown in the figure. What is the direction of the electric field at point A?

a) up b) down c) left d) right e) zero 2. Explain your reasoning 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 37 smartPhysics output Aaron ([email protected]) 1) 4 2) the field from Q+ points up and to the right, while Q- points down and to the right therefore when adding them together it points to the right.

Beatrice ([email protected]) 1) 4 2) point A is equidistant from each charge and they would therefore cancel out Ada ([email protected]) 1) 2 2) The charges will cancel out so the direction of the force will be down Ahmed ([email protected]) 1) 4 2) the field is toward the negative charge and away from the positive charge which makes the direction to the right 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 38 Chemistry example This picture depicts matter at the submicroscopic level. Describe what you see and take a guess as

to what the identity of the substance is. The particles are well spaced out so I would guess the substance to be a gas. The substance is a gas composed of 2 elements that are in an equal ratio. After reading Chapter 1 in the book I would guess that the substance is water in the form of a solid because the atoms are in order. However, I could be wrong because I think the atoms in a solid might be closer together. 11/14/14 New Faculty Workshop 39

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