Homework 1 review - University of Vermont

Homework 1 review - University of Vermont

Shape descriptions Different ways to describe the appearance of a crystal or aggregation of crystals not necessarily related to symmetry (though some are a result of that). Table 3.2 in the text will see in lab Equant, blocky, acicular, tabular or platy, capillary of filiform, bladed, prismatic or columnar, foliated or micaceous Massive, granular, radiating, fibrous, stalactitic, lamellar or tabular, stellated, plumose, dendritic, reticulated, colloform or globular, botryoidal, reniform, mammary, drusy, elliptic or pisoltic Shape - from breaking

Cleavage as we learned, the regular arrangement of atoms results in planes, some of which may be structurally weaker and result in cleavage planes or surfaces Generally described as basal, cubic, octahedral, prismatic Fracture - the breaking of a crystal is not related to a plane of atoms in the lattice Different types of fracture Even, uneven or irregular, hackly, splintery, fibrous, conchoidal Color = light - light absorbed

White light is one part of the full spectrum of particle energy Color develops in any material because one part of the spectrum is absorbed more than another part ROYGBIV Measured absorbance of mineral , x nm , y nm

E , nm Color = light - light absorbed What wavelength of light/ particle gets absorbed? Different h Energy= 1/ h Higher E transition redder

Absorbance The absorbance of a mineral (or any material for that matter) can be measured using any wavelength materials often have very distinct absorbances, why? Ions making up certain minerals may be similar, but the bonding and spatial arrangement are different Different ions coordinated to other ions in different ways (vary bond order, length, geometry, type) will absorb energy differently Color in Minerals Idiochromatic color is derived from the

main constituents making up the mineral, changes in color then indicate significant changes in composition and structure Allochromatic color is derived from minor or trace ions (present in small amounts) Chromophores are ions which absorb light in visible wavelengths quite strongly Transition metals are often good chromophores d-orbitals absorb very well in the visible spectrum d d

Mineral color (impurity) Quartz is obviously allochromatic Rose Quartz Fe Gemstone Color Host crystal Impurity Ruby

Red Aluminum oxide (Corundum) Chromium Emerald Green Beryllium aluminosilicate (Beryl) Chromium

Garnet Red Calcium aluminosilicate Iron Topaz Yellow Aluminum fluorosilicate

Iron Tourmaline Pink-red Turquoise Calcium lithium boroaluminosilicate Manganese Blue-green Copper phosphoaluminate Copper Same Ion, different color? Coordination of the ion can change the

energy between stable and excited states (photon emission from this splitting determines absorbance and thus color) Same ion, structure different color?? Remember defects? Defects are parts of the mineral structure where a foreign ion comes in, or where the major ions are simply misfit

Radiation can also cause defects, or changes in the bonding environment Any change in bonding environment can result in a different color Luster Sheen the WAY in which the mineral reflects light When a particle reflects, interaction can change appearance luster Metallic minerals reflect more light surface is denser with electrons some rays reflect totally, other absorb or transmit through Types of luster

Vitreous glassy appearsance Resinous looks like resin Greasy interference creates more than one color reflection (oil on water) Silky surface appears as fine fibers Adamantine bright, shiny, brilliant Pearly irradescent appearance Dull not reflecting a lot of light Earthy looking like earth Pitchy appearance of tar Submetallic Metallic vitreous

resinous Greasy/waxy silky submetallic pearly pearly adamantine

adamantine Diaphaneity A minerals ability to transmit light is termed diaphaneity Ranges from transparent (light passes freely) to translucent (light partially passes well, see through thinner crystals) to opaque (light does not pass through unless extremely thin) Transparent Full transmittance of light

Translucent Opaque No transmittance of light Size and color A materials size can affect how color reflects off of it. Streak test is an indicator of this some minerals (hematite for instance) can be different colors in hand sample, but the streak is

always the same Sometimes the color is actually a distinctive measure of particle size Luminescence Photon in Photon out Fluorescence UV light in yields photon emission in the visible Phospholuminescence UV light excitation lasts seconds to minutes and releases visible light Color Centers

Typically an impurity present which is responsible for color or luminescence development When 2 ions are present with different charges, electron transfer between them can act as a color center Sapphires are blue because Fe2+ Ti4+ absorbs red light The energy required to move the electron comes from light in the red part of the spectrum for sapphire

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