Heidegger Explicitly on Academic education - Phenomenographic ...
and the Philosophy of Adult Education Rauno Huttunen & Leena Kakkori, ECER 2016, 23 - 26 August, Dublin Time: 24.8. 17:15-18:45 Network: 13. Philosophy and Education Room: NM-F104
JEAN-PAUL SARTRE - The Transcendence of the Ego, (La transcendance de lego 1934) Nausea, (La Nause 1938) Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions, (Esquisse d'une thorie des motions1939) Being and Nothingness, (L'tre et le nant 1943) Existentialism is Humanism, (LExistentialisme est un humanisme 1946) Notebooks for an Ethics, (Cahiers pour une morale1946-49) Materialism and Revolution, (Matrialisme et rvolution1946) What is Literature, (Qu'est-ce que la littrature ? 1947) SARTRE: The Transcendence of the Ego (La transcendance de lego, 1934) Sartre claims that the ego is not the owner of
consciousness. Sartre diverges from Husserl by stating that the me should not be sought in the states of un-reflected consciousness nor behind them. The me appears only with the reflective consciousness and the reflective intention. The I and the me are two aspects of ego and they constitutes the unity of infinite series of our reflected consciousnesses. Ego is transcendent unity of states, of actions and of qualities. Thus for Sartre there exist a consciousness and a transcendental ego. Two basic elements of philosophical (theoretical) humanism are present in this early work: Sartrean philosophy is 1) man-centered and 2) consciousness-centered. SARTRE: Nausea (La Nause, 1938) Nausea is a philosophical novel where Sartre expresses many important themes of his existentialism; existential
crisis, nausea or disgust towards existence, existential angst existential freedom, alienation, search for meaning Nausea and Albert Camuss The Stranger are the most important novels of French existentialism. The Nausea is not inside me: I feel it out there in the wall, in the suspenders, everywhere around me. It makes itself one with the caf, I am the one who is within it. SARTRE: Nausea (La Nause, 1938) The radical humanist is a special friend of the civil servant. The so called Left wing humanists chief concern is to preserve human values: he belongs to no party because he doesnt want to betray humanity as a whole ... He also loves cats, dogs, all higher animals. The Communist
writer has been loving men ever since the second Five-Year Plan, he punishes because he loves ...The Catholic humanist, the late-comer, the Benjamin, speaks of men with a wonderstruck air.What a beautiful fairy tale, he says, is the humblest life, that of a London docker, of a girl in a shoe factory! He has chosen the humanism of the angels ...Those are principal types. But there are others, a swarm of others: the humanist philosopher who bends over his brothers like an elder brother who is conscious of his responsibilities; the humanist who loves men as they are, the one who loves them as they ought to be, the one who wants to save them with their consent, and the one who wants to save them in spite of themselves, the one who wants to create myths, and the one who is satisfied with old myths, the one who loves man for his death, the one who loves man for his life, the happy humanist who always SARTRE: ralit-humaine human reality Sartre adopts the concept of human reality (ralithumaine) in his book Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions
(1939). Here, Sartre focuses his philosophy on the study of man and his situation in a Heideggerian manner: ... a truly positive study of man in situation would have first to have elucidated the notions of man, of the world, of being-in-theworld, and of situation. We can understand Sartres novels and plays from 1930s and 1940s as an existentialist illustration of a human reality. The novel Nausea, the collection of short stories The Wall, and the play No Exit created an impression that Sartrean existentialism is pessimistic, absurd, and anti-humanistic. Sartres philosophy can be described as somewhat pessimistic before the lecture Existentialism is a Humanism. SARTRE: Being and Nothingness (L'tre et le nant, 1943) Sartre states that a human is undefined because to begin with a human is nothing. A human is nothing until he becomes what he
makes of himself. A human is a kind of selffilling nothingness. A human has existential freedom and that is for Sartre the first principle of existentialism. Following Heideggers terminology Sartre calls a being whose existence comes before its essence as human reality ralit-humaine[Heideggers Dasein]. SARTRE: Being and Nothingness (L'tre et le nant, 1943) Some basic ontological concept in B&N: Negation (la ngation) Nothingness (le nant)
Non-being (non-tre) Being-in-itself (tre-en-soi) -> Being-for-itself (tre-poursoi) = Absolute event! (vnement absolu) Facticity (facticit) Intentionality and consciousness Being-with, They and The Others SARTRE: Being and Nothingness (L'tre et le nant, 1943)
SARTRE: Being and Nothingness (L'tre et le nant, 1943, Eng. 1966) For Sartre, there is no escape from existential freedom. A human is abandoned to the world, and there is no determinism which would limit human freedom. A human is determined by the concrete situation, but he still has existential freedom. A human cannot find anything to depend on, neither within nor outside of himself. The only thing a human can find out is that he is without any excuses: Someone will say, I did not ask to be born. This is a nave way of throwing greater emphasis on our facticity I am responsible for everything I am abandoned in the world in the sense that I find myself suddenly alone and without help, engaged in a world for which I bear the whole responsibility without being able, whatever I do, to tear myself away from this responsibility for an instant. (p. 710)
SARTRE: Being and Nothingness (L'tre et le nant, 1943) To say that the for-itself has to be what it is to say that in it existence precedes and conditions essence or inversely according to Hegel, that for it Wesen ist was gewesen ist all this is to say one and same thing: to be aware that man is free. Indeed by the sole fact I am conscious of the causes which inspire my action, these causes are already transcendent objects for my consciousness; they are outside. In vain shall I seek to catch hold of them. I escape them by my very existence. I am contemned to exist forever beyond my essence, beyond the causes and motives of my act. I am condemned to be free. This means that no limits to my freedom can be found except freedom itself or, if you prefer, that we are not free to cease being free. To the extent that the for-itself [human, RH] wishes to hide its own nothingness from itself and to incorporate the in-itself [thing, RH] as its true mode of being, it is trying to also to hide its freedom from itself. (p. 567)
SARTRE: Being and Nothingness (L'tre et le nant, 1943, Eng. 1966) Each human reality is at the same time a direct project to metamorphose its own For-itself into an In-itself-For-itself, a project of the appropriation of the world as a totality of being-in-itself, in the form of a fundamental quality. Every human reality is a passion in that it projects losing itself so as to found being and by the same stroke to constitute the In-itself which escapes contingency by being its own foundation, the Ens causa sui, which religions call God. Thus the passion of man is the reverse of that of Christ, for man loses himself as man in order that God may be born. But the idea of God is contradictory and we lose ourselves in vain. Man is a useless passion. (p. 784) Sartrean queue
(Critique of Dialectical Reason, 1960) Take a grouping of people in the Place Saint-Germain. They are waiting for a bus at a bus stop in front of the church These people who may differ greatly in age, sex, class, and social milieu realise, within the ordinariness of everyday life, the relation of isolation, of reciprocity and of unification (and massification) from outside which is characteristic of, for example, the residents of a big city in so far as they are united though not integrated through work, through struggle or through any other activity in an organised group common to them all. To begin with, it should be noted that we are concerned here with a plurality of isolations: these people do not care about or speak to each other and, in general, they do not look at one another; they exist side by side alongside a bus stop. At this level, it is worth noting that their isolation is not an inert statute; rather, it is actually lived in everyones project as its negative structure. In other words, the isolation of the organism, as the impossibility of uniting with Others in an organic totality, is revealed through the isolation which everyone lives as the provisional negation of their reciprocal relations with Others. This man is isolated not only by his body as
such, but also by the fact that he turns his back on his neighbor. SARTRE: Existentialism is humanism After the war Sartre considers existentialism as optimistic and (LExistentialisme est un humanisme, 1946) active. Existentialism is humanism both in the practical and the philosophical sense of the term. If we accept the existential conditions that God does not exist, that human existence comes before its essence, that humanity is abandoned, that a human is condemned to be free, that the destiny of man lies within himself, that man has no other hope than his own action, and that there is no pre-established morality, the result is that a human simply is and human life is possible. A human is undefined because to begin with a human is nothing. A human is nothing until he becomes what he makes of himself. A human is a kind of self-filling nothingness. A human has
existential freedom and that is for Sartre the first principle of existentialism. Sartre calls a being whose existence comes before its essence as human reality [ralit-humaine]. SARTRE: Existentialism is humanism Because existence precedes essence, one is morally (LExistentialisme est un humanisme, 1946) responsible for what one is and what one does for others. One is not responsible for only oneself but instead for all humans. Our responsibility concern mankind as a whole. No God or society can take away this existential responsibility. Every time one makes a choice, one is responsible for oneself and for all the people because one is creating a certain image of a man. When one commits oneself to something, one acts at the same time as a kind of legislator who decides for the whole mankind. This human reality
causes such existential feelings as anguish, abandonment and despair. If one tries to deny this freedom and responsibility, one is guilty of self-deception which causes bad faith. SARTRE: Existentialism is humanism (LExistentialisme est un humanisme, 1946) How do I know which actions are right and which are wrong? Sartres answer is: You are free, therefore choosethat is to say, invent. No rule of general morality can show you what you ought to do: no signs are vouchsafed in this world. Values do not exist before humans create them. There is no foundation for values apart from human freedom and action. Sartre promotes the ethics of action and selfcommitment. Although there is no separate kingdom
of values, existentialism does recognize the dignity of man. A human is not an object or a thing. SARTRE: Existentialism is humanism (LExistentialisme est un humanisme, 1946) SARTRE: Existentialism is humanism Existential humanism considers man as being always outside of (LExistentialisme est un humanisme, 1946) himself, because man is all the time projecting and losing himself beyond himself. Man is always pursuing transcendent aims (aims that transcend his present being) and he is always in the state of self-surpassing. Sartre thinks that this relation of transcendence is constitutive for subjectivity. Existentialism is humanism because it reminds people that there is no other
legislator apart from humans and that in situations of abandonment humans must look for themselves beyond their present selves. A human is abandoned in the world, and he has to make choices in concrete situations with others being-there in flesh and blood. A human is his own master, but he is responsible for others, and no one can free him from this existential freedom and responsibility. Sartre demands to respect your own and others existential freedom. The Limits of Sartres (early) existentialism What is the point of living? What should I do with my life? What morality should I choose? What ethical stance should I take? These are existential question that every adult person deliberate at some point in ones life. Sociologists Anthony Giddens and Patrick Baert call those moments as existential moments. Many seek some adult education
program at the time of existential moment. Sartres illustration of human reality [Dasein] corresponds persons inner feeling in those moments but Sartres does give neither consolation nor hints for resolution. Sartre was fully aware of these deficiencies of his existentialism and in his writing in late 1940th he addressed those problems. I am referring to his text Notebooks for an Ethics, What is Literature (1947) and Materialism and Revolution (1947). Viktor E. Frankl 1905 1997 M.D. (1930), Ph.D. (1949), Dr.h.c.mult . Founder of Logotherapy and Existential Analysis (LTEA)
Professor of Neurology and Psychiatry at the University of Vienna Medical School. 1940-42 director of the Neurological Department of the Rothschild Hospital During World War II he spent 3 years in various concentration camps, including Theresienstadt, Auschwitz, and Dachau.
1946-70 he was director of the Vienna Neurological Policlinic. Visiting Professor at Harvard and at universities in Pittsburgh, San Diego and Dallas. Received 29 honorary doctorates from universities in all parts of the world The American Psychiatric Association bestowed upon him the Oskar Pfister Award.
Mans Search for meaning - ...trotzdem Ja zum Leben sagen - Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager (1946) Viktor E. Frankl's memoir has riveted generations of readers with its descriptions of life in Nazi death camps and its lessons for survival. Between 1942 and 1945 Frankl was held in four different camps, including Auschwitz, while his parents, brother, and pregnant wife perished. Based on his own experience and the experiences of those he treated in his practice. At the time of Frankl's death in 1997, Man's Search for Meaning had sold more than 10 Viktor E. Frankl
Man's Search for Meaning. An Introduction to Logotherapy. 1946/2000 rztliche Seelsorge. Grundlagen der Logotherapie und Existenzanalyse. Franz Deuticke, Wien, und Fischer Taschenbuch 42302, Frankfurt am Main, 1946-1997.Neuauflage 2005-2007; In dieser Auflage erstmals ergnzt durch: Zehn Thesen ber die Person. Deuticke im Zsolnay Verlag. Logotherapie und Existenzanalyse. Texte aus fnf Jahrzehnten. Piper, Mnchen 1987. Man's Search for Ultimate Meaning. (A revised and extended edition of The Unconscious God; with a Foreword by Swanee Hunt). Perseus Book Publishing, New York, 1997 Psychotherapy and Existentialism. Selected papers on Logotherapy. (1967) The Will to Meaning: Foundations and Applications of Viktor E. Frankls logotherapy
Frankl called logotherapy as education toward responsibility. That means the responsibility for living ones life authentically, in other words, meaningfully (Frankl 1986, p. 14). Logotherapy can be understood as method to heal somebody who has mental illness. However, this definition is correct but too narrow, because it loses the most essential idea of the logotherapy. Logotherapy is a lifelong process to grow, to learn, and to find meaning of life to be a human being. Logotherapy is different from psychoanalysis, because the methods of logotherapy are less retrospective and less introspective. It focuses on the future of a humans life instead of past it searches for the meaning of life. The meaning of life and being a human being are about Frankl: Mans Search for meaning
(1946/2000) Let me explain why I have employed the term Logotherapy as the name for my theory. Logos is a Greek word which denotes meaning. Logotherapy, or, as it has been called by some authors, The Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy, focuses on the meaning of human existence as well as on man's search for such a meaning. According to logotherapy, this striving to find a meaning in one's life is the primary motivational force in man. That is why I speak of a will to meaning in contrast to the pleasure principle (or, as we could also term it, the will to pleasure) on which Freudian psychoanalysis is centred, as well as in contrast to the will to power on which Adlerian psychology, using the term striving for superiority, is focused. (p. 104)
Frankl: Mans Search for meaning (1946/2000) The meaning of life differs from man to man, from day to day and from hour to hour. What matters, therefore, is not the meaning of life in general but rather the specific meaning of a person's life at a given moment. To put the question in general terms would be comparable to the question posed to a chess champion: "Tell me, Master, what is the best move in the world?" There simply is no such thing as the best or even a good move apart from a particular situation in a game and the particular personality of one's opponent. The same holds for human existence. One should not search for an abstract meaning of life. Everyone has his own specific vocation or mission in life to carry out a concrete assignment which demands fulfilment. Therein he cannot be replaced, nor can his life be
Logotherapy and religion All human lives are precious and unique. Frankl speaks a lot about the spiritual dimension of human being. He sees that it is the highest dimension of human being. Although, he thinks that religion is everybodys private thing and that the logotherapy does not make any difference between different religious. You can be Muslim, Christian, Jew (as Frankl was), or atheist and still you have this highest spiritual dimension. Logotherapy, as a secular theory and medical practise, must restrict itself to factual statements, leaving to the patient the decision as to understand his own beingresponsible: Whether along the lines of religious beliefs or agnostic convictions. Logotherapy must remain available for everybody.in cases of atheistic patients and usable in Frankls concept of human Human being has three dimensions:
physical, psychological and spiritual dimenisons. within reference of logotherapy, spiritual does not have primarily religious connotation but refers to the specifically human dimensions. (Man serch for meaning. 104) Spirituality means humans ability to do and express highest things in human life, like beauty, art, truth, and goodness. Spirituality can also include religion but not necessary. Frankl developed Dimesionalontology, which enables us to grasp the simultaneity of mans wholeness and unity on one hand ans, on the other the difference between bodily, psychic and, mental procesesses. (Frankl 1978, 131.) He thought, that the dimensiona ontology might give some answers to the problem of cartesian dualism and to the Dimensionalontology Viktor E. Frankls logotherapy
Logotheraphy is based on an explicit philosophy of life. Logotheraphy is based on three fundamental assumptions which form a chain of interconnected links: 1. Freedom of Will Freedom of will makes us human beings. According to the logotherapy, humans are not fully subject to conditions but are basically free to decide and capable of taking their stance toward internal and external conditions. 2. Will to meaning The will to meaning must be understood distinctively from the will to power by Nietzsche and the will to pleasure by Freud. The will to meaning can be seen as the primary motivation of humans but not as a negative force. 3. Meaning of life Life has meaning under all circumstances, even the most miserable ones. Thus, all human lives are precious and unique. Frankl on meaning of life
Our main motivation for living is our will to find meaning in life. According to Frankl ( 2000, p. 133): We can discover this meaning in life in three different ways: (1) by creating a work or doing a deed; (2) by experiencing something or encountering someone; and (3) by the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering and that everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms to choose ones attitude in any given set of circumstances. The meaning of life has nothing to do about your age, conditions, health, or abilities. It is important to realize that logotherapy does not declare or offer some general meanings of life. Rather, the question is to help people to achieve the openness and flexibility that will enable them to shape their day-to-day lives in a meaningful manner. Frankl and Sartre
The individual is responsible for his/her attitude to all the circumstances of his/her life, and in this way, it is the individuals unique freedom and responsibility to create meaning in every situation. Like Sartre, Frankl dismisses the notion of a preordained meaning or purpose in life: 'Man is not fully conditioned and determined but rather determines himself whether he gives in to conditions or stands up to them. Man is ultimately self-determining. He always decides what his existence will be, what he will become in the next moment' (Frankl, 2000: 119). Frankl and Sartre Frankl addresses that the most valued idea what Sartrean/Heideggerian existentialism has thought us is that human being is not a thing among other things but something quit else: But a human being is no thing. This no-thingess,
rather than nothingness, is the lesson to learn from existentialism (Frankl 1988, p. 6). . . .the 'to what' of all responsibleness must necessarily be prior to the responsibleness itself. What I feel that I ought to do, or ought to be, could never be effective if it were nothing but an invention of mine--rather than a discovery. Jean-Paul Sartre believes that man can choose and design himself by creating his own standards. However, to ascribe to the self such a creative power . . . is it not even comparable to the fakir trick? The fakir claims to throw a rope into the air, into the empty space, and claims a boy will climb up the rope. It is not different with Sartre when he tries to make us believe that man "projects" himself . . . into nothingness." (2000 p. 58) Existential vacuum
Ever more patients complain of what they call an "inner void, and that is the reason why I have termed this condition the "existential vacuum. In contradistinction to the peak-experience so aptly described by Maslow, one could conceive of the existential vacuum in terms of an "abyssexperience. (Frankl. 2000 p. 83) After having shown the beneficial impact of meaning orientation, I turn to the detrimental influence of that feeling of which so many patients complain today, namely, the feeling of the total and ultimate meaninglessness of their lives. They lack the awareness of a meaning worth living for. They are haunted by the experience of their inner emptiness, a void within themselves; they are caught in that situation which I have called the existential vacuum. (Frankl. 2014) Noogenic Neuroses Frankl uses existential frustration to refer to (1) existence
itself, i.e., the specifically human mode of being; (2) the meaning of existence; and (3) the striving to find a concrete meaning in personal existence (93). Existential frustration can also result in noogenic neuroses which contrasts psychogenic neuroses. Noogenic neuroses have their origin not in the psychological but rather in the noological (from the Greek noos meaning mind) dimension of the human existence denoting anything pertaining to the spiritual core of mans personality. Frankl stress that spiritual does not have a primarily religious connotation but refers to the specifically human dimension (93) which arises out of humans aspiration for a meaningful existence as a spiritual issue by treating the frustration for such an existence. Noogenic neuroses emerges from conflicts between various values rather than the conflicts between drives and instincts as Noogenic Neuroses
Noogenic neuroses do not emerge from conflicts between drives and instincts but rather from conflicts between various values; in other words, from moral conflicts, or, to speak in a more general way, from spiritual problems. Among such problems, existential frustration often plays a large role. It is obvious that in noogenic cases the appropriate and adequate therapy is not psychotherapy in general but rather logotherapy; a therapy, that is, which dares to enter the spiritual dimension of human existence. In fact, logos in Greek means not only meaning but also spirit. Spiritual issues such as man's aspiration for a meaningful existence as well as the frustration of this aspiration, are both dealt with by logotherapy in spiritual terms. They are taken sincerely and earnestly instead of being traced back to unconscious roots and sources, thus being dealt with merely in instinctual terms. Frankl 2014
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