Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response-Refresher 29 CFR 1910.120 02/06/20 Objectives Review of the following subjects: Regulations PPE Respiratory Protection
Decontamination Containment Site Characterization Health and Safety Plan 02/06/20 Initial Training Routine site employees 40 hours off site, 3 days on site under an experienced supervisor, 8 hour refresher
Routine site employees with minimal exposure (no respirator/under PEL) 24 hours off site, 1 day on site, 8 hour refresher Non-routine site employees 24 hours off site, 1 day on site, 8 hour refresher 02/06/20 REGULATORY GUIDELINES
02/06/20 HAZWOPER STANDARD Published on March 6, 1989 and became effective March 6, 1990 incorporated into the construction standards as 29 CFR 1926.65 on June 30, 1993 EPA adopted the standard on June 23,1989 for public employees in states
where federal OSHA has enforcement authority. 02/06/20 Intergrated Standards 29 CFR 1910.1200. the Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.38(a) Employee Emergency Plans and Fire Prevention Plans 29 CFR 1910.1450, Occupational
Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories 02/06/20 Plus . . . 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals 29 CFR 1910.1030, Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens 29 CFR 1910.146, Permit-Required
Confined Spaces 29 CFR 1910.156, Fire brigades 02/06/20 RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Passed in 1976 Protect human health and environment* Reduce waste, conserve energy & natural resources
Reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous waste 02/06/20 CERCLA The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act Passed in 1980 Normally referred to as
Superfund 02/06/20 Superfund No standards or permits Holds companies financially liable Financed by companies that do business with hazardous substances. Pay now or pay later! Government can do the clean-up and bill
you later. 02/06/20 SARA Title III Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act title III Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 Requires states and local jurisdictions to develop emergency response plans
Facilities must share information about the hazardous substances they have on site with the LEPC 02/06/20 ICP The National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance Published in the Federal Register on June 5, 1996 Meets requirements of multiple federal
agency regulations with a single plan NRT website at www.nrt.org 02/06/20 Whats Hazardous Mean? Ignitability Corrosive Reactive or explosive Toxicity
02/06/20 Ignitability Liquids with a flash point less than 140 oF (RCRA definition) Non-liquids with potential to spontaneously combust DOT-ignitable compressed gases DOT oxidizers
02/06/20 Corrosivity Aqueous solutions with a pH less than or equal to 2; or greater than or equal to 12.5 Liquids that corrode steel at the rate of greater than 0.25 inches/year 02/06/20
Reactivity Normally unstable Reacts violently with water Forms explosive mixtures with water Produces toxic gases when mixed with water Capable of detonation if struck or heated; or under STP DOT explosive 02/06/20
Toxicity Modes and Routes of Entry Mode Inhalation Ingestion Injection Absorption 02/06/20
Route Respiratory Gastrointestinal Skin Skin Factors of Toxicity Time & Frequency (TWA, STEL) Route by which exposure occurs Physical & chemical form of the substance
Dose delivered 02/06/20 Inhalation Hazard? Handy rules of thumb vapor pressure <10 mmHg slow 10-50 mmHg medium >50 mmHg fast
evaporation rate <0.8 slow 0.8 - 3 medium > 3 fast 02/06/20 Health Effects Acute body response at time of exposure or a few days after exposure, typically to a high concentration.
Chronic body response takes a long time after repeated or prolonged exposures. 02/06/20 Fire & Explosion Characteristics Components of Combustion Fuel
Ignition Sources Oxidizer Fire & Explosive Characteristics Sources of Ignition Cigarettes Welding Grinding / Cutting Unprotected electrical equipment Open flames
Hot surfaces Static electricity Oxidizing chemicals Physical Hazards at a Site __________ __________ Traffic __________
Illumination Radiation 02/06/20 Electrical hazards ___________ Contamination control ___________
Excavations Animals/Vectors Personal Protective Equipment 02/06/20 Purpose of a PPE Program To protect the wearer from safety and health hazards
To prevent injury to the wearer from incorrect use/or malfunction of the PPE. 02/06/20 Hazards of PPE ____________ Physical and psychological stress
Impaired vision ____________ Difficult to communicate 02/06/20 The PPE Program Hazard identification Medical monitoring Environmental surveillance Selection, use, decontamination
guidelines Training 02/06/20 Program Success Review program at least annually Perform a frequent review of chemical & physical hazards to ensure proper PPE is being worn (upgrade or downgrade accordingly).
02/06/20 Types of PPE Fully-encapsulating suits Non-encapsulating suits Aprons, leggings, & sleeve protectors Gloves Boots Safety glasses, face shields 02/06/20
More types of PPE . . . Firefighters protective clothing Proximity or approach garments Blast and fragmentation suits Cooling garments 02/06/20 Chemical-Protective Clothing Chemical-protective clothing is available
in a variety of materials that offer a range of protection against different chemicals. Ideally, the chosen material resists permeation, degradation, and penetration. 02/06/20 Selection Criteria Resource Guidelines for the selection of CPC
Provides a matrix of clothing material recommendations for approximately 300 chemicals. Based on : Evaluation of permeation and degradation data from independent tests Vendor literature Raw materials suppliers. 02/06/20
BE AWARE - No materials protect against all chemicals and combinations of chemicals, and no currently available material is an effective barrier to any prolonged chemical exposure. 02/06/20 Permeation Permeation rates and breakthrough time may vary
depending on a number of factors. Name those Factors! 02/06/20 Factors influencing Permeation Clothing material type and thickness Manufacturing method Concentration of hazardous
substances Temperature & Humidity Solubility of the chemical in the clothing material 02/06/20 Purchasing Proper PPE Durability & Flexibility Temperature effects Ease of decontamination
Compatibility with other equipment Public concerns (color) 02/06/20 Level A Worn when the highest level of respiratory, skin, and eye protection is needed. 02/06/20
Level A components Minimally SCBA or SAR w/escape respirator Totally encapsulated suit Gloves, inner Gloves, outer Boots, steel toe and chemical protective Communications 02/06/20
Level B Highest level of respiratory protection is needed but hazardous material exposure to the few unprotected areas of body is unlikely. 02/06/20 Level B Components
SCBA or SAR w/escape respirator Chemical protective overalls/long sleeved jackets or coveralls Gloves, inner Gloves, outer Boots, steel toe -chemical protective Duct tape Communications 02/06/20 Level C
Types of airborne substances is known The concentrations measured The criteria for using air-purifying respirators are met. 02/06/20 Level C Components Full facepiece air-purifying respirator
Emergency escape respirator (optional) Coveralls Gloves, inner & outer Duct tape Boots, steel toe and chemical protective 02/06/20 Level D Worn on sites where respiratory or skin
hazards are NOT present. It is primarily a work uniform providing minimal protection Coveralls Safety boots Safety glasses with sideshields Hard hat 02/06/20 Personnel may be
required to upgrade or downgrade their level of protection if site hazards warrant. 02/06/20 Reasons to Upgrade Known or suspected presence of dermal hazards Occurrence or likely occurrence of gas or
vapor emission. Change in work task that will increase contact or potential contact with hazardous materials. Request of the individual performing the task. 02/06/20 Reasons to Downgrade New information indicating that the situation is less hazardous than was
originally thought. Change in site conditions that decreases the hazard. Change in work task that will reduce contact with hazardous materials. 02/06/20 Before an incident . . Wear Your PPE
Allows the user to become familiar with the equipment in a non-hazardous situation. Instills confidence in the user in the use of his/her equipment. Makes the user aware of the limitations and capabilities of the equipment. 02/06/20 Plus . . Increases the efficiency of
operations performed by workers wearing PPE May increase the protective efficiency of PPE use Reduces the expense of PPE maintenance 02/06/20 PPE Inspection Inspection and operational testing of equipment received from the factory or
distributor. Inspection of equipment as it is issued to workers. Inspection after use or training and prior to maintenance. Periodic inspection of stored equipment. 02/06/20 PPE Storage Clothing and respirators must be
stored properly to prevent damage or malfunction due to exposure to: Dust Moisture Sunlight and extreme temperatures Damaging chemicals Impact 02/06/20 Heat Stress Factors Lack of physical _______
Precautions Implement a work/rest regimen based on the following: Anticipated work rate Ambient temperature and other environmental factors Type of protective ensemble Individual worker characteristics and fitness 02/06/20
Cold Stress Factors Very low temperatures/High humidity High winds Inadequate clothing wet and cold objects specific drugs and medicine Old age Poor physical health 02/06/20
Rest/drink breaks w/warming areas Cover metal handles with insulating material Do not use unprotected metal seats Provide warm clothing Allow workers to be acclimatized Minimize sitting or standing still for long periods 02/06/20 Respiratory Protection
29 CFR 1910.134 02/06/20 Air Contaminants Any substances that are not a normal components of breathing air (oxygen, nitrogen, etc..) The respiratory threat posed by contaminants is a function of the actual contaminant and its
concentration in the air. 02/06/20 Types Of Respiratory Protection Air-purifying Atmosphere-supplying Includes supplied air and SCBA 02/06/20 Air-purifying
Half - Mask - covers the mouth and nose and fits under the chin of the wearer. Full - Facepiece - covers the wearer from the hairline to below the chin. Provides the greatest protection to the wearer from exposure to hazardous materials as well as eye protection. 02/06/20 Cartridges Under the new respiratory protection
standard, cartridges must be changed according to: A NIOSH certified end-of-service life indicator; or Use a change schedule (manufacturers recommendations) 02/06/20 PAPR Powered Air Purifying Respirators This device uses a blower to pass contaminated air through an element
that removes the contaminants and supplies purified air to the wearer. The element may be a particulate filter, gas/ vapor cartridge, or a combination filter and cartridge. 02/06/20 Atmosphere - Supplying Respirators SCBA Self -contained Breathing
Apparatus SAR Supplied-air respirator 02/06/20 Supplied Air Respirators SAR Deliver breathing air through a supply hose connected to the wearers facepiece or enclosure. Air line respirators can not be used in
IDLH atmospheres, unless used in conjunction with an escape respirator. 02/06/20 Emergency Signals Verbal communication while wearing respirators is difficult because talking is muffled and distorted by the face mask. A set of hand signals known to all
personnel is essential for working together safely. 02/06/20 Equipment Selection Respirator Decision Logic is to ensures technical accuracy and uniformity in the selection of respirators and to provide necessary criteria to support the selection.
NIOSH Decision Logic 1-80035NIOSH 02/06/20 Warning Properties Includes odor, eye irritation, and respiratory irritation. Warning properties relying on human senses are not foolproof. Provides some indication to the wearer of possible sorbent exhaustion or of poor facepiece fit or other respirator
malfunction. 02/06/20 IDLH Immediately dangerous to life and health Conditions that pose an immediate threat to life or health Conditions that pose an immediate threat of severe exposure to contaminants
02/06/20 In establishing the IDLH concentration the following factors are considered: 1) Escape without loss of life or irreversible health effects. Thirty minutes is considered the maximum exposure time for escape. 2) Severe eye or respiratory irritation or
other reactions that would prevent escape 02/06/20 without injury. Fit Testing Fit tested with same make, model, style, and size of respirator to be used Qualitative Quantitative
02/06/20 Respiratory Protection Program Procedures for selecting respirators Medical evaluations of employees wearing respirators Fit testing procedures Procedures for proper use in routine and foreseeable emergencies
02/06/20 Additional program requirements . . Procedures & schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, storing, inspecting, repairing, discarding, & maintaining respirators Procedures to ensure adequate air quality, quantity, & flow of breathing
air for atmosphere-supplying respirators 02/06/20 Plus . . . Training of respiratory hazards Training on proper use of respirators including donning, doffing, limitations,& maintenance Procedures for regularly evaluating the effectiveness of the program
02/06/20 DECONTAMINATION 02/06/20 Definition . . . The process of removing or neutralizing contaminants that have accumulated on
personnel and equipment. 02/06/20 Multiple Purposes Protect workers from hazardous substances Protects all site personnel by minimizing the transfer of harmful materials into clean areas 02/06/20
Plus . . It helps prevent mixing of incompatible chemicals. It protects the community by preventing uncontrolled transportation of contaminants from the site. 02/06/20
Decontamination Plan A decontamination plan should be developed (as part of the Site Safety Plan) and set up before any personnel or equipment enters hazardous or potentially hazardous areas. 02/06/20
Guidelines Extent and type of hazard expected Flammable/explosive potential Meteorological conditions Topography Level of protection selected Availability of supplies and equipment 02/06/20 Components of a Plan
Number and layout of decontamination stations. Decontamination equipment needed. Appropriate decontamination methods Procedures to prevent contamination of clean areas. 02/06/20 Additional plan components
Methods and procedures to minimize worker contact with contaminants. Disposal methods of clothing and equipment that are not completely decontaminated. Ability of Decon Plan to be revised. 02/06/20 Prevent Contamination Stress work practices that minimize
contact with hazardous substances. Use remote sampling, handling, and container-opening techniques. Protect monitoring and sampling instruments by bagging. Cover equipment and tools with a strippable coating which can be removed during decontamination. 02/06/20 Additional methods to prevent
contamination: Wear disposable outer garments and use disposable equipment where appropriate. Encase the source of contaminants with plastic sheeting or overpacks. Walk upwind of contamination, if possible Establish Contamination Reduction Corridor upwind, if possible 02/06/20 Preventing contamination . .
Tape all junctures to prevent contaminants from running inside gloves, boots and jackets. Check PPE to ensure no cuts or punctures exist that could expose workers to wastes. Understand breakthrough times of cartridges and PPE. Leave exclusion zone in ample time of air depletion in SCBA. 02/06/20
Decontamination Methods Physical Chemical 02/06/20 Decon stations should be separated physically to prevent cross contamination and should be arranged to decrease
contamination. Separate flow patterns and stations should be provided to isolate workers from different contamination zones with incompatible wastes. 02/06/20 Entry and exit points should be conspicuously marked;
Divide the Contamination Reduction Zone into a clean side and a dirty side 02/06/20 Emergency Decontamination level of decon based on severity of incident Partial Decontamination heat/rest regimen pick-up/drop off of tools
respirator change out 02/06/20 Recommended Equipment Drop cloth of plastic to place heavily contaminated equipment and outer protective clothing Collection of containers for storing disposable clothing or equipment, and heavily contaminated PPE.
02/06/20 Additional equipment Lined box with absorbents for wiping or rinsing off gross contaminants and liquid contaminants. Large galvanized tubs, stock tanks, or children's wading pools to hold wash and rinse solutions. 02/06/20
Additional equipment Wash solutions selected to wash off and reduce the hazards associated with the contaminants. Rinse solutions Long handled, soft bristled brushes Paper or cloth towels for drying 02/06/20 Additional equipment Lockers and cabinets for storage Metal or plastic cans or drums for contaminated wash and rinse solutions.
Plastic sheeting, sealed pans with drains, or other appropriate methods for containing and collecting contaminated wash and rinse solutions spilled during decontamination. 02/06/20 Additional equipment Shower facilities for full body wash or at a minimum, personal wash sinks.
Soap or wash solution, wash cloths, and towels for personnel. 02/06/20 All decon equipment must be completely decontaminated and/or disposed of properly. Buckets, brushes, clothing, tools, and other
contaminated equipment should be collected, placed in containers and labeled. 02/06/20 Spill Control 02/06/20 Control Methods Containment
Restrict material to its original container Confinement Limit the physical size of the area of release 02/06/20 Containment Methods Plugging Patching
02/06/20 Site Characterization Phases of Site Characterization Offsite Characterization Onsite Survey On going Characterization (Site Characterization is continuous process)
(Site Characterization at least 1st phase, must be completed before S&H Plan) Offsite Characterization Look for: Potential Confined Space Entry Potential Explosive\Flammable Situations Extremely Hazardous Material
Obtaining Information Two Methods Interviews\Record Review Perimeter Reconnaissance Interview\Records
Site Location Current & past activity Length of Activity Access to site Release Pathway Hazardous material involved Purchasing records
MSDSS Onsite Survey Types of Containers or Storage System Condition of Containers & Storage System Physical Condition Of Material Determine Potential Pathways Collect Sample
Onsite Survey continued ..... Indicators of Potential Hazardous Exposure Safety Hazards Identify reactive, incompatible, flammable, corrosive material, etc. Naturally Occurring hazards (animals, poison plant, etc.)
Note labels, tags, markings, etc. Employers Requirements THE 14 STEPS 02/06/20 Step 1: Safety & Health Program
Organizational Structure Comprehensive Work Plan Site specific HASP Training Plan Medical Surveillance Program Standard Operating Procedures
02/06/20 Step 2: Site Characterization & Analysis Site location and size
Description of job activities Duration of planned activities Site topography and accessibility by air and road Hazards expected on site Pathways of hazardous material flow Availability of local emergency responders 02/06/20 Step 3: Site Control
Site map Site work zones Buddy system Site communications Standard Operating Procedures
Availability of medical assistance 02/06/20 Step 4: Employee Training Names of personnel and alternatives responsible for site safety and health Safety and health hazards on site Use of PPE Work practices to minimize risks of hazards
Safe use on engineering controls Medical surveillance requirements 02/06/20 Step 5: Medical Surveillance Employees who are or have been exposed to hazardous substances at or above the PEL. Employees who wear a respirator for 30 days or more per year. Members of hazardous materials
teams Required prior to assignment, annually, at termination, & if needed 02/06/20 Step 6: Engineering Controls, Work Practics, PPE Applying engineering controls such as ventilation. Applying administrative controls such as avoiding or minimizing
exposure Levels of protective clothing 02/06/20 Step 7: Monitoring Initially to identify hazardous conditions Moving to different portions of site Finding new contaminants Initiating a different operation Handling leaking containers
Working in areas with obvious liquid contamination 02/06/20 Monitoring Equipment Considerations Potential contaminant Hazards Present Portability Ease of Use Intrinsically Safe
Reliability Calibration Commonly used Direct Reading Instruments Combustible Gas Meter Oxygen Meter Photo Ionization Meter Flame Ionization Meter Colorimetric or DetectorTubes pH Meter or Paper
Radiation Meter Step 8: Informational Programs Developed within the safety and health program. Informs employees, contractors and subcontractors of the nature, level, and likely extent of exposure during cleanup operations. 02/06/20
Step 9: Handling Drums & Containers Inspect containers prior to handling Unlabeled drums are considered hazardous until positive identification is complete Materials must be on hand where spills, leaks, or ruptures could occur. Drums that will rupture if moved must be placed in a secondary container. Not allowed to stand on or work from a
container 02/06/20 Step 10: Decontamination Decon procedure developed and communicated to employees prior to staring work Decon area must be set up where employees exit the exclusion zone Decon personnel must wear correct PPE
02/06/20 Step 11: Emergency Response Plan Emergency recognition and prevention
Safe distances and refuge Site security and control Evacuation routes and procedures Emergency medical treatment, emergency decon, emergency alerting, and emergency equipment. Requires rehearsal and review 02/06/20 Exception Employees are evacuated and are not
permitted to assist in handling the emergency Employer provides an emergency-action plan (CFR 1910.38(a)) 02/06/20 Step 12: Illumination Provide adequate lighting Levels provided in Table H-120 in the standard, section m.
02/06/20 Step 13: Sanitation at temporary workplaces Potable drinking water available on site Toilet facilities (see Table H-120.2 for quantity required) Washing facilities Shower facilities and change rooms if on site for more than 6 months.
02/06/20 Step 14: New Technology Programs Employers required to review and evaluate new products and technologies such as foams, absorbents, neutralizers drum handling equipment
02/06/20 Emergency Responders 02/06/20 Elements of an ERP Pre-emergency planning & coordinate with outside parties Personnel roles, lines of authority,
training, & communication Emergency recognition and prevention Safe distances and places of refuge Site security and control 02/06/20 Plus... Evacuation routes and procedures Decontamination Emergency medical treatment and
first aid Emergency alerting and response procedures Critique of response and follow-up PPE and emergency equipment 02/06/20
(Advisor: Dr. Smith Colton) School of Social Work, Grand Valley State University Introduction To encounter an aging or older adult and provide them with adequate assistance requires knowledge of the existential reality of old age (Längle, 2001).
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as compared with a typical DC plan. ... Provisions For Deeply Troubled Plans. Current Rules. For the minority of plans (6 - 10% or approximately 90 - 150 plans) facing . inevitable insolvency there is no early intervention option.
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