Hall A Technical Report

Hall A Technical Report

Neutron Transversity Vincent Sulkosky Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2011 JLab Users Group Meeting June 8th, 2011 Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) Parton Distributions in DIS Nucleon -> Pancake TMD PDFs link Intrinsic motion of partons Parton spin Spin of the nucleon Multi-Dimension structure L ?? 0 Transverse motion

Probes orbital motion of quarks A new phase of study, fast developing field Great advancement in theories (factorization, models, Lattice ...) Not systematically studied until recent years Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS): HERMES, COMPASS, Jlab6GeV, ... p-p(p_bar) process : FNAL, BNL, ... Additional details in X. Qians and A. Metzs talks on June 7th. Leading-Twist TMD PDFs Quark polarization Nucleon Polarization

Unpolarized (U) U Longitudinally Polarized (L) Transversely Polarized (T) h1 = f1 = Boer-Mulders h1L = g1 = L

Helicity Worm Gear (Kotzinian-Mulders) h1 = T f 1T = Transversity g1T = Sivers Nucleon Spin Quark Spin Worm Gear h1T = Pretzelosity

: Survive trans. Momentum integration Leading-Twist TMD PDFs Quark polarization Nucleon Polarization Unpolarized (U) U Longitudinally Polarized (L) Transversely Polarized (T) h1 = f1 =

Boer-Mulders h1L = g1 = L Helicity Worm Gear (Kotzinian-Mulders) h1 = T f 1T = Transversity g1T = Sivers

Nucleon Spin Quark Spin Worm Gear h1T = : Probed by E06-010 Pretzelosity Transversity Characteristics of transversity

h1T = g1L for non-relativistic quarks No gluon transversity in nucleon Chiral-odd difficult to access in inclusive DIS Soffers bound |h1T| <= (f1+g1L)/2 Tensor Charge: Integration of transversity over x. An important quantity of nucleon. Calculable in LQCD N q q Helicity state N

Sivers Function Left-right asymmetric quark distribution in a transversely polarized nucleon Related to the angular momentum of quarks Lq Final state interactions (FSI) can lead to non-zero asymmetries (Brodsky, Hwang, Schmidt, 2002) Imaginary part of interference Lq=0 L Lq=1 quark wave functions. Gauge invariance of QCD requires Sivers function to flip sign between semi-inclusive DIS and Drell-Yan: f1Tq SIDIS f1Tq D Y Worm-Gear Functions g1T

g1T = Leading twist TMD PDFs T-even, Chiral-even Dominated by real part of interference between L=0 (S) and L=1 (P) states Imaginary part -> Sivers effect No GPD correspondence a genuine sign of intrinsic transverse motion First TMDs in Pioneer Lattice Worm Gear g1T (1) S-P int.

TOT P-D int. calculation arXiv:0908.1283 [hep-lat], arXiv:1011.1213 [hep-lat] Light-Cone CQM by B. Pasquini B.P., Cazzaniga, Boffi, PRD78, 2008 Access TMDs through SIDIS Detect one hadron from fragmentation of the struck quark in coincidence with the scattered electron Flavor tagging possible through fragmentation function z = Eh/ at least > 0.2 at least > 0.2 Access TMDs through SIDIS d 2 y2

2 2 dxdydS dzdh dPh xyQ 2(1 ) {FUU ,T ... Boer-Mulder cos( 2h ) UU cos(2h ) F ... Unpolarized S L [ sin( 2h ) FULsin( 2h ) ...] Transversi ty/Collins Sivers Pretzelosity

sin(h S ) ST [ sin(h S ) FUT sin(h S ) ( FULsin(h S ) ...) Polarized Target sin(3h S ) FUTsin( 3h S ) ...] Polarized Beam and cos(h S ) 2 ST e [ 1 cos(h S ) FLT ...]} Target S L e [ 1 2 FLL ...] Worm Gear SL, ST: Target Polarization; e: Beam Polarization

Separation of TMDs Separate different effects through angular dependence Collins asymmetry: Collins AUT sin h s Sivers asymmetry: Sivers AUT sin h s h1 H1 UT UT f1T D1 Pretzelosity:

Pr etzelosity AUT sin 3 h s UT Double-spin asymmetry: cos h s ALT cos h s LT h1T H1 g1T D1 E06010 Experiment Setup010 Experiment Setup Success full data taking 2008-09 Polarized electron beam Luminosity Monitor

~80% polarization Fast Flipping at 30Hz Charge asymmetry: controlled by online feed back at PPM level Polarized 3He target BigBite at 30 as electron arm Dipole magnet, Pe = 0.7 ~ 2.2 GeV/ at least > 0.2c MWDC/ at least > 0.2shower-preshow/ at least > 0.2scintillator HRSL at 16 as hadron arm QQDQ config, Ph = 2.35 GeV/ at least > 0.2c Scintillator/ at least > 0.2drift chamber/ at least > 0.2Cherenkov/ at least > 0.2RICH/ at least > 0.2 lead glass Beam Polarimetry (Mller + Compton) Kinematic Coverage x bin 1

~ 2.0 GeV2 ~ 2.8 GeV ~ 0.5 2 3 4 Q2>1GeV2 W>2.3GeV z=0.4~0.6 W>1.6GeV Angular Coverage color coded for each target spin direction: up, down, left and right. Collins

: Sivers and Worm-Gear: Target spin orientations: up-down and left-right (increases angular coverage) HRS and BigBite Spectrometers Particle Identification Hadron Identification from HRSElectron Identification from BigBite Hadron Particle Identification Gas Cherenkov and lead glass: separate hadrons from electrons Aerogel Cherenkov: separates pions and other hadrons Kaon and proton data can be cleaned up by coincidence/TOF and the

RICH detector: both provide K/ ~ 4 separation Combined pion rejection 99.9% Particle Identification for Kaons Polarized 3He Target Effectively a polarized neutron target Improved figure of merit Rb+K hybrid mixture cell Narrow bandwidth lasers Compact size: No cryogenic support needed He Cell 3 Beam ~90% ~1.5% ~8%

Performance of 3He Target High luminosity: L(n) = 1036 cm-2 s-1 Record high steady ~ 60% polarization with 15 A beam with automatic spin flip every 20 minutes History of Figure of Merit of Polarized 3He Target Average 3He pol. = 55% 19 Analysis: Target Single-Spin Asymmetry Target single-spin asymmetry from normalized yields, need to consider : beam charge, target density, DAQ life time, detector efficiency etc. Automatic target spin flip once every 20 minutes. 2845 target spin

local pairs Beam Charge + vs Beam Charge - Beam charges are wellbalanced between the pairs 20 SSA check: HRS single-arm 3He SSA (Witness channels on 3He, not corrected for target polarization and dilution) K. Allada Univ. of Kentucky 2010. False asymmetry < 0.1% Analysis of Asymmetry Two teams carried out independent analysis

Red Team: Maximum Likelihood Method Blue Team: Local Pair-Angular Bin-Fit Method Do not share any code. Many cross checks on intermediate results. Two team independent asymmetry analyses Many cross checks on intermediate asymmetries. Red team. Blue team. Blue team implemented Red teams method. 3 He Target Single-Spin Asymmetry in SIDIS 3

He (e, e'h), hp , p ~87% ~1.5% ~8% To extract information on neutron, one would assume : 3 He 0.865 n 2 0.028 p He Collins SSA are not large (as expected). 3 He Sivers SSA: negative sign for +, consistent with zero for 3

After correction of N2 dilution (dedicated reference cell data) Blue band: model (fitting) uncertainties Results on Neutron Collins asymmetries are not large, except at x=0.34 Sivers agree with global fit, and light-cone quark model. Consistent with pHERMES/COMPASS (ud)favors negative Independent demonstration of

negative d-quark Sivers function. Blue band: model (fitting) uncertainties RedRadiative band: other systematic correction: bin migration + uncer. of uncertainties asy. Spin-dependent FSI estimated <1% (Glauber Paper on the arXiv arXiv: 1106.0363, will submit in a few days. He ALT (DSA) Results 3

First measurement with 3He target o o o Ph.D. thesis of J. Huang (MIT 2011). 30 Hz beam helicity flips Two independent analysis teams; cross checks Corrected for small component of long. target spin, SL Data suggest non-zero SIDIS A LT: -, +2.8 (sum all bins) ~7o g* BigBite Preliminary 30o

h+/e He Spin ST 3 SL e PT +Global A 1 Higher twist contribution NOT included Neutron ALT Extraction Corrected for proton dilution, fp

Predicted proton asymmetry contribution < 1.5% ( +), 0.6% (-) n ALT g1qT D1hq , sensitive to d quark Dominated by L=0 (S) and L=1 (P) interference Consist w/ model in signs, suggest larger asymmetry Preliminary Summary Neutron Transversity experiment (E06-010) completed. First measurement of Collins and Sivers moments (AUT) on 3He AUT results on neutron: Collins: + are - asymmetries consistent with zero except at x ~ 0.34 for + Sivers: - is consistent with zero; however, + favor negative values Results to be submitted to PRL very soon First indication of a non-zero ALT: 3He-, +2.8 ALT (sum all bins) Preliminary Kaon Sivers and Collins moments are also available

The neutron results combined with existing proton and deuteron data will aid in constraining the d-quark sivers function JLab-12 GeV: Precision SSA measurements in SIDIS will be one of the highlights as discussed in X. Qians thesis prize presentation. Jefferson Lab E06-010 Collaboration Institutions CMU, Cal-State LA, Duke, Florida International, Hampton, UIUC, JLab, Kharkov, Kentucky, Kent State, Kyungpook National South Korea, LANL, Lanzhou Univ. China, Longwood Univ. Umass, Mississippi State, MIT, UNH, ODU, Rutgers, Syracuse, Temple, UVa, William & Mary, Univ. Sciences & Tech China, Inst. of Atomic Energy China, Seoul National South Korea, Glasgow, INFN Roma and Univ. Bari Italy, Univ. Blaise Pascal France, Univ. of Ljubljana Slovenia, Yerevan Physics Institute Armenia. Collaboration members K. Allada, K. Aniol, J.R.M. Annand, T. Averett, F. Benmokhtar, W. Bertozzi, P.C. Bradshaw, P. Bosted, A. Camsonne, M. Canan, G.D. Cates, C. Chen, J.-P. Chen (Co-SP), W. Chen, K. Chirapatpimol, E. Chudakov, , E. Cisbani(Co-SP), J. C. Cornejo, F. Cusanno, M. Dalton, W. Deconinck, C. de Jager, R. De Leo, X. Deng, A. Deur, H. Ding, C. Dutta, D. Dutta, L. El Fassi, S. Frullani, H. Gao(Co-SP), F. Garibaldi, D. Gaskell, S. Gilad, R. Gilman, O. Glamazdin, S. Golge, L. Guo, D. Hamilton, O. Hansen, D.W. Higinbotham, T. Holmstrom, J. Huang, M. Huang,

H. Ibrahim, M. Iodice, X. Jiang (Co-SP), G. Jin, M. Jones, J. Katich, A. Kelleher, A. Kolarkar, W. Korsch, J.J. LeRose, X. Li, Y. Li, R. Lindgren, N. Liyanage, E. Long, H.-J. Lu, D.J. Margaziotis, P. Markowitz, S. Marrone, D. McNulty, Z.-E. Meziani, R. Michaels, B. Moffit, C. Munoz Camacho, S. Nanda, A. Narayan, V. Nelyubin, B. Norum, Y. Oh, M. Osipenko, D. Parno, J. C. Peng(Co-SP), S. K. Phillips, M. Posik, A. Puckett, X. Qian, Y. Qiang, A. Rakhman, R. Ransome, S. Riordan, A. Saha, B. Sawatzky,E. Schulte, A. Shahinyan, M. Shabestari, S. Sirca, S. Stepanyan, R. Subedi, V. Sulkosky, L.-G. Tang, A. Tobias, G.M. Urciuoli, I. Vilardi, K. Wang, Y. Wang, B. Wojtsekhowski, X. Yan, H. Yao, Y. Ye, Z. Ye, L. Yuan, X. Zhan, Y. Zhang, Y.-W. Zhang, B. Zhao, X. Zheng, L. Zhu, X. Zhu, X. Zong. Backup Slides Experimental Extraction of g1T Extractable from Double Beam-Target Spin Asymmetry (DSA) in SIDIS with transversely polarized target: ALT e e Sca t

n X Beam Helicity Target Spin cos(h s ) ALT ter in gP lan e h

cos(h s ) q d d d s h 2 g D 1 T 1

q h ds d d Existing ALT Results COMPASS COMPASS Proton arXiv:1012.0155 [hep-ex] Last Session, C. Schill Proton , Deuteron HERMES Last Session, L. Pappalardo Jlab E06-010 This talk Pol. 3He Target (eff. pol. n) Fast beam helicity flips Deuteron Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 162, 8996 (2008)

Transversity Data Analysis Flow Raw Data Run Spectrometer Detector Target Scalers optics calibration polarization data base Farm Production Event Selection PID cuts

Lumi Cuts Reconstruction Beam Cuts Cuts Two independent teams: Blue vs Red Witness Asymmetry Coincidence Asymmetry Physics Analysis Corrections: luminosity, DAQ deadtime, detector efficiency, . N2 Dilution correction

Background Separation of 3He to neutron Collins vs Sivers correction Correction for N2 Dilution Cross section ratios determined through reference cell N2 and 3He data. From 3He to Neutron very small (< 0.003) Cross section ratios determined through reference cell H2 and 3He data. DSA Consistency Checks

MLE vs Local Spin Pair Methods

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