Good Web Sites about Minerals:

Good Web Sites about Minerals:

Good Web Sites about Minerals: http://galaxy.einet.net/images/ gems/gems-icons.html Smithsonian Gem and Mineral Collection -- lots of spectacular mineral pictures and good information The

The Rock Rock Cycle Cycle A model that describes all the crustal processes by which rock is formed, modified,

transported, decomposed, and reformed. N.Lindsley-Griffin, 1999 Rocks are made up of minerals N. Lindsley-Griffin, 1999 What is a Mineral?

Occurs naturally Not previously living (inorganic) Solid Definite chemical composition Orderly internal atomic arrangement N. Lindsley-Griffin, 1998

Ivory, bone, seashells, coral, petrified wood, and other previously living things are NOT minerals N. Lindsley-Griffin, 1998 Minerals are made up of

atoms Atomic number = number of protons; gives atoms their distinctive characteristics. Atomic mass = protons plus neutrons N. Lindsley-Griffin, 2000

Ions combine to form compounds Here, the Li atom loses an electron to become a + positively charged cation. The F atom gains an electron to become a negatively charged anion. Positive and negative charges attract each other to form an IONIC BOND N. Lindsley-Griffin, 1999 Covalent Bonding -- atoms share electrons

to form a strong bond. Diamond Diamond and graphite are the same chemical composition (Carbon) but exhibit very different internal structures. Graphite N. Lindsley-Griffin, 1999

Van der Waals Bonding -- a weak bond caused by a weak secondary attraction between molecules. Graphite N. Lindsley-Griffin, 1999 Orderly array of atoms in the mineral Galena:

large atoms - sulfur, small - lead As seen with a scanning-tunneling microscope N. Lindsley-Griffin, 1999 The orderly arrangement of atoms in Galena controls its physical properties. Error in textbook on Figure 2.7: Sulfur

atoms, not oxygen Sulfur atom N. Lindsley-Griffin, 1999

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