Gilded Age - Birdville Independent School District

Gilded Age - Birdville Independent School District

Gilded Age Shines Outside, Tarnished Underneath Post Reconstruction to 1900 Gilded Age

Technology Pollution Immigration

Poverty Big Business Robber Barons

Cities Slums Unification of U.S.

Closing of the West Rapid Industrialization Natural Resources are Plentiful: oil, coal, iron, trees, grain, livestock Laissez-faire government: few laws

regulate, kick-back schemes, philanthropist donations Immigration: cheap, plentiful labor, no laws Notable Inventions (Bessemer)- process yields steel

Steel yields RR track, skyscrapers (Jenny), suspension bridges (Roebling) (Drake) Petroleum refining yields kerosene, oil, gas (Westinghouse) AC/DC electrical currents harnessed

(Edison) Incandescent lighting (Bell) Telephone Skyscrapers Department Stores

Roeblings and Brooklyn Bridge Texas Crude Shale Oil is Discovered

Electricity to Business and Home Indoor Lighting-West Orange Telephone Bell Labs

Central Pacific Meets Union Pacific Promontory Pt, Utah Time Zones

Hard and Dangerous Work Millionaires and Crooks Carnegie, JP Morgan, Pullman get rich Credit Mobilier scandal lines the pockets of politicians by overcharging construction

Farmers lose out land near RR Price fixing charges small farmers more Granger laws established (Munn v Illinois) govt can regulate private industry to help consumers ICC estb interstate rates Bad times leads to oligopoly in RR, other

Business Savvy? Carnegie promoted efficiency, internal competition, vertical and horizontal integration Holding companies and Trusts consolidate and build control over entire industries:

J.P. Morgan US Steel buys Carnegie Steel, John D. Rockefeller-Standard Oil Robber Barons squeeze then jack up prices Philanthropists Social Darwinism poor are lazy and inferior Sherman Antitrust largely unenforced

Rise of Labor Unions Conditions appalling: 7 days, no vacation, no breaks, 14 hr days, poor air/heat, no sick pay, dangerous, dirty, kids and women exploited the most, pay so low

everyone had to work to pay rent/food Samuel Gompers heads AFL-craft union Eugene Debs heads RR union-industry Mother Mary Harris Jones- crippled childrens march

Strike! Great Strike of 1877 RR workers protest several pay cuts Haymarket Riots Chicago crowd gathered to protest police brutality-bomb thrown at policeseveral killed Homestead Strike Carnegie Steel-12 dead,

closed down for 6 mos but mgt won Pullman Strike scabs hired led to violence, workers blacklisted Uprising of 20,000-led by Pauline Newman-estb ILGWU-Shirtwaist Fire 1911

More Recent Union Membership Show Me The Money Immigration and Urbanization 1880 - 1920

Immigration 1880 - 1920 Jacob Riis Progressive Photographer -5 cents a spotcheap housing, steady work

The Seedy Side of Life Tenement Living Air Shafts used as Public Toilets Taking Turns Sleeping

Social Gospel Movement Hull House- Jane Addams Unsafe Heating Fire Hazard

Crime- Bandits Roost Police had little impact Immigration Restrictions Nativist movement favoritism to US born Formed Immigration Restriction League

Influenced Congress to pass Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 repealed 1943 Gentlemans Agreement ended Japanese segregation in San Francisco Political Machine

Legal Mafia A Pyramid System to secure votes Trade votes for favors Political Boss controlled government money Graft payout for favors-police on take

Cities improved infrastructure Infamous William Boss Tweed -headed NYC dems called Tammany Hall Boss Tweed-Political Machine

Boss Tweed National Politics Also Affected by Graft

Spoils System aka Patronage Civil Service qualifications Hayes (1876) couldnt get reforms passed

Garfield (1880) assassinated Arthur his VP got Pendleton Civil Service Act through Cleveland (1884) tries to fight big Biz by reducing tarriffs- (tax on imports) Harrison (1888) friend of Big Biz-pro tariff Cleveland re-elected (1892) 2 non-consecutive

terms Life at the Turn of the 20 Century Chapter 8

th Sections Science and Urban Life Expansion of Public Education Segregation and Discrimination

Dawn of a Mass Culture Urban Life Skyscrapers- advances due to elevators and steel structure Electric Transportation-faster, further

Engineering-suspension bridges Open spaces-Frederick Olmsted-Central Park Urban Planning-parks, wide avenues, lakefronts, playgrounds, commercial

Flat Iron Building NYC Mass Transit Trolley Mass Transit Subway

Urban Planning Science and Technology Printing process faster and cheaper Airplane travel-Orville and Wilbur Wright Photography

Educational Advances and Set Backs Elementary School is compulsory 8-14 yrs in most states by the end of the Civil War High School becomes compulsory early

1900s, broaden curriculum Kindergarten added African Americans mostly excluded from secondary education at turn of century Universities broaden curriculum Universities for African Americans began

Champions of Education Booker T Washington-a gradual improvement - African Americans need an education in useful skills like education, agriculture, mechanical skills Tuskegee

Institute W.E.B. DuBois-immediate inclusion through a liberal arts education- to take leadership role now, not later- Niagra Movement-became the NAACP

Advocates of Education Segregation is Legalized African Americans win the right to vote and hold office from Civil War This right eroded by discriminatory

practices like literacy tests, poll taxes and the grandfather clause Lynching not following racial etiquette Racial segregation or Jim Crow laws estb Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Debt peonage

Leisure Grows into an Industry

Amusement parks Bicycle Tennis Boxing Baseball

Snacks: Coca Cola, Hershey Bar, Tootsie roll, Campbell Soup, Nabisco crackers Circus Movies Vaudeville Ragtime

Ashcan Artists- John Sloan McSorleys Ashcan Artist-Robert Henri The Laundress

Ashcan Artist-John Sloan Sunday, Women Drying their Hair

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