Biotechnology Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Any technique used to identify or change a gene.
Intended uses: Medical Forensics Agriculture Farm Animals Research
Pets Medical gene replacement therapy replacing a damaged or missing gene with a healthy one.
Ex. Genetic diseases Cystic fibrosis Agriculture
Agriculture Create crops that are: Resistant to insects fewer pesticides needed Resistant to herbicides kill weeds without harming crops.
Grow faster and bigger Produce larger fruits and vegetables CROPS Canola Corn
Cotton Potato Soybean Squash Tomato
Research improved vaccines and medicines. Diabetes - Insulin Hemophilia clotting factors Sterile pests
fruit fly mosquito Potential for Using Algae to Produce Human Therapeutic Proteins ShownScienceDaily (Mar. 11, 2010) human interferon 1: used to treat Multiple Sclerosis and costs
patients from $1,600 to $2,000 for a one month supply human erythropoietin: increase red blood production in patients undergoing chemotherapy human proinsulin: a hormone with a multi-billion dollar market used to treat Type 1 diabetes. human vascular endothelial growth factor: treat patients suffering from pulmonary emphysema
moblility group protein B1 (HMGB1):activates immune cells and is being investigated for its potential to enhance other cancer therapies. two other proteins were domains 10 and 14 of human fibronectin, which are being investigated for their ability to mimic certain kinds of antibodies.
Animals Cows produce more milk, resistant to diseases Chickens: grow faster, resistant to diseases
Pigs more meat, resistant to diseases Salmon grow larger, faster
Pets Zebrafish glowfish: Fluorescent gene transferred from coral
and squid. Cloning pets Forensics DNA fingerprinting
Paternity testing who is the daddy? Identifying suspects in criminal cases. Techniques
Use restriction enzymes to cut DNA at specific base pair sequences. GAATTC C CTTAAG G
G AATT CTTAA Sticky ends
Bacteria plasmid Human gene
Recombinant DNA Obtain plasmid from bacteria Obtain desired gene from other species Open plasmid using enzymes
Gene is added to plasmid Plasmid + gene is absorbed by bacteria New bacteria strain will be expressed by bacteria Transgenic organisms:
Organisms with DNA from another. Gel Electrophoresis Technique used to breakdown DNA into smaller fragments and
separate the fragments by size. Several restriction enzymes are used. DNA fragments are placed in an electrophoresis apparatus. Electricity is applied.
DNA has a negative charge and migrates toward the positive side of the apparatus. Smaller fragments move faster than larger ones. Electricity is turned off and a
dye is applied. DNA is examined under UV light. (+) (-)
When Genetic Engineering Goes Wrong!!!! Dangers
Genes may spread from desirable crops to weeds and other plants through viruses. Beneficial insects can be killed by insect resistant plants (monarch butterfly). Plants can overgrow other crops.
Unknown effects on humans that consume genetically altered animals with super growth factors. Transferring genes may activate silent oncogenes in
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